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J . , The Right Reverend V. S. Azaeiah, 
/f ?;" \ Bishop of Dornakal. 

J. N. Farquhar, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon.), 

Already published. 

The Heart of Buddhism. K. J. Saunders, M.A. 

Asoka. J. M. Macphail, M.A., M.D. 

Indian Painting. Principal Percy Brown, Calcutta. 

Kanarese Literature. E. P. Rice, B.A. 

The Samkhya System. A. Berriedale Keith, D.C.L., 

Psalms of Maratha Saints. Nicol Macnicol, M.A., D.Litt. 
A History of Hindi Literature. F. E. Keay, M.A., Jubbulpore. 
Hymns of the Tamil ^aiva Saints. Francis Kingsbury, 

B.A., and G. E. Phillips, M.A., Bangalore. 
The Karma-Mimamsa. A. Berriedale Keith, D.C.L., 


Subjects proposed and volumes under preparatioi. 


Hymns from the Vedas. Prof. A. A. Macdonell, Oxford. 
Anthology of Mahayana Literature. Prof. L. de la Vallee 

Poussin, Ghent. 
Selections from the Upanishads. F. J. Western, M.A., Delhi. 
Scenes from the Ramayana. 
Selections from the Mahabharata. 


An Introduction to Hindu Philosophy. J. N. Farquhar and 

John McKenzie, M.A., Bombay. 
The Philosophy of the Upanishads. 
Sank_ara's Vedanjia. A. K. Sharma, M.A., Patiala. 
Ramanuja's Vedanta. 
The Buddhist System. 


Indian Architecture. R. L. Ewing, B.A., Madras. 
Indian Sculpture. 

The Minor Arts. Principal Percy Brown, Calcutta. 
Indian Coins. C. J. Brown, M.A. (Oxon.), Lucknow. 


Gautama Buddha. K. J. Saunders, M.A., Rangoon. 


Akbar. F. V. Slack, M.A., Calcutta, 


Rabindranath Tagore. E. J. Thompson, M.A., Bankura. 


The Kurral. H. A. Popley, B.A., Erode. 

Hymns of the Alvars. J. S. M. Hooper, M.A., Madras. 

Tulsl Das's Ramayana in Miniature. G. J. Dann, M.A., 

(Oxon.), Patna. 
Hymns of Bengali Singers. E. J. Thompson, M.A., Bankura. 
Sufi Hymns. Prof. R. Siraj dd Din, Lahore, and W. R. 

Wilson, I.C.S., Dera Ghazi Khan. 
GujaratI Hymns. 
Kanarese Religious Lyrics. 


Bengali. C. S. Paterson, M.A., Calcutta. 

Gujarat!. R. H. Boyd, M.A., Ahmadabad. 

Marathi. Nicol Macnicol, M.A,, D.Litt,, Poona, 

Urdu'. B. Ghoshal, M.A., Bhopal. 

Tamil, Francis Kingsbury, B.A., Bangalore. 

Telugu. P. Chenchiah, M.A., Madras, and Raja Bhujanga 

Rao, Ellore. 
Malayalam. T. K. Joseph, B.A., L.T,, Trivandrum, 


The Rajputs, 

The Syrian Christians, K, C, Mammen Mapillai, Alleppey. 

The Sikhs, 


Modern Folk Tales, W, Norman Brown, M.A., Ph.D., 

Indian Village Government. 

Poems by Indian Women. Mrs. N, Macnicol, Poona. 
Indian Temple Legends. K. T, Paul, B,A., Calcutta, 
Classical Sanskrit Literature, 
Indian Astronomy and Chronology, Rao Bahadur L, D, 

Svamikannu PlLt-AI, 


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TALKAD, A.D. 726. 

A'<nf HI flic Mysore Unii'ersity, Mysore. 


A History of 
Kanarese Literature 







The Right of Translation is Reserved, 



prAktana vimarsa vichakshana, 

rao bahadur, 








Fifty years ago verj^ few, even of the Kanarese 
people themselves, had any idea of the range of 
Kanarese literature, or of the relative age of the books 
which constitute it. Our present knowledge is the 
fruit of patient work on the part of a small number of 
painstaking scholars, who have laboriously pieced 
together the scattered information contained in inscrip- 
tions on stone and copper and in the colophons and text 
of palm-leaf manuscripts. 

It is the practice of Kanarese poets to preface their 
works, not only with invocations of the gods and of the 
saints of old time, but also with the praise of former 
poets. This practice is of very great historical value, 
for it enables us to place the poets in their relative 
chronological order. As in many instances the writers 
received patronage from some reigning king, the 
mention of the name of the royal patron enables us 
further to give to many of the poets an approximately 
correct date. In this way a list of Kanarese poets can 
be drawn up in fairly correct order. The result shows 
that Kanarese has a literature of vast extent, reaching 
back till its beginnings are lost in the mists of time in 
the early centuries of the Christian era. 

The first modern scholars to give with any fulness 
a connected view of Kanarese literature were the 
German missionaries, Wiirth and Kittel. The latter in 
1875 prefixed a valuable essay on Kanarese Literature 
to his edition of Nagavarma's Prosody. Since then a 
vast deal of additional information has been obtained, 
more especially through the researches of Mr. Lewis 
Rice, C.I.E., Director of Archaeological Researches in 
Mysore, and his assistants and successor. 


I am not aware that there is any separate volume in 
the English language giving a history of Kanarese 
literature. The most readable general account is to be 
found in Mr. Lewis Rice's Gazetteer of Mysore, Vol. I, 
and in his Mysore and Coorg from the Inscriptio7is. 
Fuller details are contained in his introduction to 
Bhattakalanka's Kariiataka Sabd(lnu§asana, a bulky 
volume now out of print ; and in the Karyiataka 
Kavi Charite or " Lives of the Kanarese Poets," by 
Messrs. R. and S. G. Narasimhacharya, respectively 
Oi^cer in charge of Archaeological Researches and 
Kanarese Translator to the Government of Mysore. 
The last-named work being written in Kanarese is 
available only for those who know that language. Only 
Part I has so far been published, which carries the 
history up to the end of the fourteenth century. It 
gives illustrative extracts from the works described. 
The present popular account of Kanarese literature is 
based on the above-named authorities, to whom acknow- 
ledgement is hereby unreservedly made. Without their 
researches this work could not have been written. 

The enumeration of a long series of little known 
writers cannot be other than tedious to the reader. I 
have endeavoured to mitigate this effect by introducing 
as much local colour as was available, and by sketching 
in as a background an outline of the times in which the 
poets lived and the atmosphere of religious faith and 
custom in which they moved. For the sake of English 
readers I have also explained many Indian terms which 
require no explanation for the Indian reader. 

By desire of the Editors, renderings have been 
given of a few illustrative passages from typical works 
belonging to different periods. In these, for reasons 
partially indicated in Chapter X, the attempt has been 
rather to express the general spirit of the original than 
to offer a closely literal translation. Graces due to 
alliteration, rhythm, vocabulary, and double meaning 
are, of course, lost in any translation. 

The systematic historical study of Kanarese 
literature is of such recent origin, and every year is 


adding so much to our knowledge, that on numerous 
points there will soon be available fuller and more 
accurate information than that presented in the present 
volume. My brother, Mr. Lewis Rice, has kindly read 
through the manuscript and made various suggestions. 

Hassocks, E. P. R. 

October, 1915. 


The call for a second edition made it desirable that 
the account here given of Kanarese literature should be 
brought, as far as possible in a book of this size, up to 
the present state of our information. This has been 
facilitated by the publication, in the meantime, of the 
.second volume of Mr. Narasirhhacharya's Lives of the 
Kanarese Poets, bringing the record up to 1700 A.D. 
Much of the fresh information brought to light in that 
volume has been here embodied, and so made available 
for those who cannot read that book in the original 
Kanarese. Its dates also have generally been followed, 
as being based on the fullest and most recent data. 

In other respects also this edition differs from the 
former. Some re-arrangement of matter has been 
made. The account of Lihgayat literature has been 
extended and largely rewritten. Much has been added 
to the accounts of Jaina and Vaishnava literature also. 
An attempt has been made to elucidate more fully one 
or two obscure points, such as the difference between 
the Jaina and Brahmanical versions of the Ramayana, 
the meaning of Syadvada, the origin of the Lihgayat 
Revival, etc. To make room for this additional matter, 
the Appendices have been omitted ; and also the 
account of the Kingdoms and Dynasties of the Kanarese 
country. As much as seemed necessary on these sub- 
jects has been inserted elsewhere in the book. The 


writer has gladly availed himself of the opportunity to 
correct minor inaccuracies, some of which were due to 
the haste, and some to the war conditions, under which 
the first edition was produced. If, in its new form, 
this little compilation prove more useful and reliable to 
students of Kanarese literature ; and if, by disclosing 
the contents of that literature to others, it contributes 
toward a better understanding and greater mutual 
sympathy between East and West, it will have fulfilled 
the writer's earnest desire. 

Hassocks, E. P. R. 

July, 1920. 


:hap. page 

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 

I. The KA:srARESE Language and Country .. 11 

Periods of the History of Kanarese Literature . . 15 

II. The Jaixa Period to A.D. 1160.. .. ..17 

The Jaina Religion in the Kanarese Country . . 17 

The Kavirajamarga (c. 850) and Earlier Writers 25 

Stanzas from Kavirdjanidrga . . . . . . 29 

Writers from the Kavirajamarga to the Lihgayat 

period . . . . . . . . . . 29 

Illustrative extract from Panipa Rdmayana . . 38 

III. Jaina Literature from 1160-1600 .. ..42 

In the time of the Ballal Rajas . . . . . . 42 

Under the Rajas of Vijayanagar . . . . . . 45 

IV. The Rise of Lingayatism (1160) .. ..49 

The Lihgayat or Vira§aiva Religion . . . . 49 

Basava and the Early Apostles of Lingayatism . . 52 

The Vachana Literature . . . . . . 56 

Specimens of the Vachanas . . . . . . 57 

V. Lingayat Writers from 1160-1600 .. ..59 

Transition from Ancient to Mediaeval Kanarese . . 59 

Lihgayat Writers in the time of Ballal Rajas . . 60 

Stanzas from Somesvara ^ataka . . . . 62 

Lihgayat Writers under Vijayanagar Kings 64, 67 

Illustrative Extract from Basava Purdna . . 65 

Verses by Sarvajna-murti . . . . . . 73 

VI. The Rise of Vaishnava Literature (1440-1600) 75 

The Vaishnava Revival . . . . . . . . 75 

Early Vaishnava Works . . . . . . 77 

Transition from Mediaeval to Modern Kanarese . . 78 

Translations of Sanskrit Classics. . .. ..78 

Popular Devotional Songs . . . . . . 79 

A Song in Praise of Vishnu . . . . . . 82 



VII. Kanarese Literature in the Seventeenth and 

Eighteenth Centuries ,. ». ,.83 

Three Outstanding Works .. .. ..83 

Extract irom the Jaimini Bkaraia .. ..8$ 

Literature at the Court of the Rajas of Mysore . . 89 

Jaina Writers of the Period . . . . . . 93 

Lingayat Writers of the Period .. .. ..94 

Works on Advaita Philosophy , . . . . . 95 

Collections of Short Stories .. .. .,96 

Specimen of Kanarese Humour . . . . 97 

VIII. The Modern Period (Nineteenth Century) .. 99 
New Classes of Works . . . . , . . . 99 

Mysore Royal Anthem . . . . . . 102 

Present Position and Prospects of Kanarese Litera- 
ture .. .. .. ,. ..102 

IX. Some Characteristics of Kanarese Literature 105 

X. Kanarese Grammarians . . . . . . 110 

XI. Sanskrit Writers in the Kanarese Country 114 

Leading Dates . . . . . . . . . . 116 

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 

Map of the Kanarese Country (at end of book) 



The Dravidian Languages. Kanarese is one of the 
Dravidian languages, which are the vernaculars of 
South India, and which are wholly unrelated to the 
Aryan languages spoken in North India. The other 
literary members of the family are Tamil, Telugu and 
Malayalam. A line drawn from Goa, on the West 
Coast, to Rajmahal, on the Ganges, will approximately 
divide the Dravidian languages on the south from the 
Aryan languages on the north. There is a large 
population of Dravidian race north of this ; but they 
no longer speak a Dravidian language. No close 
connection has been shown between the Dravidian 
languages and any other languages of the world, if we 
except Brahui, a non-literary language of Beliichistan. 
Certain words and forms seem to point to a connection 
with the ancient Median language used on the Behistun 
monument (and perhaps with Akkadian). Affinities 
are also said to exist with the Finnish of North Europe 
and the Ostiak of Siberia. These call for fuller in- 
vestigation.^ The Dravidians seem to have occupied 
their present seats from extreme antiquity. One of 
the earliest traces of this group of languages is found 
in the fact that the peacocks imported into Jerusalem 
by King Solomon 1000 B.C., and which must have come 
from the west coast of India, have a Tamil name.' 

^ See Caldwell's Comparative Gramtnar of the Dravidian 

^ Hebrew tukki = Tamil tokai, which, in ancient Tamil, meant 


The Kanarese Country. The population speaking 
Kanarese is about ten millions. The extent of country 
in which it is now the vernacular is shown in the map 
at the end of this volume. It includes the whole of 
Mysore, the western half of the Nizam's Dominions 
and the southern (so-called " South Mahratta and North 
Canara ") districts of the Bombay Presidency, together 
with the districts of South Canara and Bellary in the 
Madras Presidency. With the exception of the Western 
Ghats and the strip of land at their feet, the whole of 
this tract is an upland plain from 1,200 to 3,000 feet 
above the sea, with a fiat or gently undulating surface, 
draining ofE to the East. 

In the KavirajaniHrga (A.D. 850) the Kanarese 
country is described as extending from the Kaveri to 
the Godavari ; which shows that the linguistic area at 
that time extended further north than at present. 
Inscriptions, manuscripts, local names and other 
evidence prove that Kolhapur, where the chief language 
now is Marathi, was once in the Kanarese area. Also 
in Sholapur town and district there are many Kanarese 
inscriptions. The northern limits of Kanarese were pro- 
bably pushed back by the Maratha raids and conquests. 

The Name of the Language. Kanarese is called by 
its own sons Ka?inada or Karyidtaka. The English 
name is a corrupt form derived from the early Por- 
tuguese, who entered the country through what is now 
known as North Canara, and spoke of the country and 
people as Canarijs. When the English settled on the 
East Coast, all South India, from the river Krishna to 
Cape Comorin, was under the rule of a Kanarese 
dynasty, reigning at Vijayanagar, and was known as 
the Karnataka Realm. Hence the name "Carnatic" 
has come to be popularly applied to the coastal plains 
south of Madras, although these are Tamil-speaking 
districts and quite outside the Kanarese country proper. 

Earliest Specimens. In a Greek papyrus of the 
second century found at Oxyrrhynchus, in Egypt, occur 
a few words quoted from some Indian language, which 
Dr. Hultzsch thinks can be identified with Kanarese (See 


J.R.A.S., 1904, p. 399). If this be so, this will be 
the earliest extant trace of Kanarese. Among the 
earliest inscriptions, of approximately known date, 
written in the Kanarese language, are the following, 
the text and translation of which can be seen in the 
Epigraphia Carnatica (quoted as E.G.). Those marked 
with an asterisk are there given also in facsimile. 


Rock inscriptions at Srayana Belgola ; E.G. II, 1-21, 23, 

26-35. No. 26* is quoted and translated below (p. 22). Early 

On a stone in temple at Siragunda ; E.G. VI, Ghikmagalur 
50.* c. 500 

On a stone in temple at Kigga ; E.G. VI, Koppa 37. c. 675 

On a stone found at Talkad, now in Victoria Jubilee 
Institute, Mysore ; E.G. Ill, Tirumakiadlu Narsipura 11.* 
It is figured as frontispiece to this book. 726 

On a virakal found at Doddahundi representing the death 
of the Ganga king, Nitimarga ; E.G. Ill, TN 91.* It is 
now in the Bangalore Museum. c. 869 

On a sculptured stone from a temple, in Begur, but now 
in the Bangalore Museum ; E.G. IX, Bangalore 83.* c. 890 

On a stone at Bellatur, a lengthy inscription by the poet, 
Malla, recording the suicide by fire of a ^udra woman 
whose husband had been put to death for killing a 
kinsman, apparently in a wrestling match ; E.G. IV, 
Heggadadevankote 18. 1057 

The Kanarese Alphabet and Written Character. It is 

to Sanskrit scholars from the north that Kanarese is in- 
debted for its reduction to writing and its introduction 
into the world of literature. The grammatical terms 
and arrangement follow Sanskrit models. 

The Alphabet is consequently syllabic, and follows 
the orderly arrangement of the Sanskrit alphabet. It 
even includes forms for ten aspirates, two sibilants and 
certain vowels and a semi-vowel not required for 
Dravidian words ; but there have been added five 
characters (e, o, la, xa, la,) for sounds not occurring in 
Sanskrit. The universal practice of making children 
recite the Amur a Kosa (a metrical Sanskrit glossary) 
from the very beginning of their education has helped 
to Sanskritise the pronunciation of the language. The 
aspirates are now freely used in indigenous words ; and 
of its own characteristic letters two have dropped out of 



use — la about the twelfth century, and ra about the 
eighteenth century.^ 

" The written character which is common to Kanna^a 
and Telugu, and which spread over the south and was 
carried even to Java, is derived, through that of the 
cave inscriptions in the west of India, from the South 
Asoka character, or that of all his inscriptions except 
in the extreme north-west of the Panjab. It belongs to 
about 250 B.C., prior to which date no specimens of 
writing have been discovered in India, though there are 
numerous earlier allusions to writing. This ancient 
alphabet has lately been satisfactorily proved by Dr. 
Biihler to be of Semitic origin. It is properly called 
the Brahvii lipi, and was introduced into India pro- 
bably about 800 B.C." {Mysore Gazetteer, I, 491). For 
the study of the character in successive centuries the 
student is referred to Burnell's South India Paleography 
(Triibner, 1878), and to Biihler's hidian PalcEography, 
a translation of which appeared in the hidian Antiqiiary 
for 1904. 

Historic Changes. Dr. Kittel notes three stages in 
the history of the language during the past thousand 
years — viz. Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern. 

The commencement of the second and third stages 
coincides approximately with the beginning of the 
Lihgayat and Vaishnava literatures respectively. (See 
below, pp. 59 and 78 ; also Preface to Kittel's Kajuiada- 
English Dictio7iary.) 

It should be noted that the term " Ancient Kanarese" 
does not always denote an obsolete form of the language. 
For colloquial purposes it is, of course, obsolete ; but its 
vocabulary and inflexions are still used for the purposes 
of poetry. The term, therefore, sometimes denotes a 
particular antique style of writing. 

The Influence ol Neighbouring Languages. As 
regards vocabulary, Kanarese is dependent on Sanskrit 
for practically all abstract, religious, scientific, and philo- 

♦ Both these letters are still retained in Tamil, Malayalam and 
Badaga ; and the ra is retained in Telugu also. See Kittel's 
Kannada Grammar, p. 15 note. 


sophical terms. Even the oldest extant Kanarese works 
abound in Sanskrit terms. Andayya (c. 1235) by a 
tour de force succeeded in excluding tatsamas (unchanged 
Sanskrit words) from his Kabbigara Kava (see p. 44) ; 
but even he uses tadbhavas (naturalised Sanskrit words) 
which occur also freely in all inscriptions. It has been 
well said that Sanskrit, though not the mother of Kana- 
rese, is entitled to be called its foster-mother, because it 
was owing to the vigour infused into it by Sanskrit that 
it was enabled to become a literary language. {Essays 
on Kajiarese Grammar , Comparative and Historical, by 
R. Raghunatha Rau, B.A., Bangalore, 1894.) 

Telugu seems to have had some influence in modify- 
ing Kanarese inflections. This was probably due to the 
extensive intercourse which always existed between the 
two language areas, which are not separated by any 
geographical barrier. Moreover, the two languages 
have a common alphabet ; and their territories have 
sometimes been under a common or allied sovereignty. 
The Marathi language has influenced the dialects of the 
north-west part of the country. 

That the influence of Tamil has been only slight is 
partly due to the fact that the two peoples used very 
dissimilar alphabets. Moreover, the Eastern Ghats 
formed a geographical boundary between them, Tamil 
being mostly confined to the plains below, and Kanarese 
to the plateau above. But some modifications due to 
Tamil were probably introduced when Sri-Vaishijavism 
was adopted from Tamil teachers. 


The history of Kanarese literature can best be 
divided into periods corresponding to the religious 
systems dominant in successive times. 

1. Until the middle of the twelfth century it is 
exclusively Jaina, and Jaina literature continues to be 
prominent for long after. It includes all the more ancient, 
and many of the most eminent, of Kanarese writings. 


2. Lingdyat literature commences from about A,D. 
1160, when Basavacharya revived the ancient Virasaiva, 
or Lihgayat religion — an evolution which was signalised 
by a great outburst of Virasaiva literary activity, wholly 
different from that of the Jainas. 

3. The Vaishyiava revival, beginning under Rama- 
nujacharya in the beginning of the twelfth century, 
continued by Madhvacharya (about 1250) and reinforced 
by Chaitanya (1500), introduced a period in which 
Brahmanic thought became dominant, an ascendance 
which has continued up till the present time. Its 
marked effect upon Kanarese literature may be said to 
commence from the date of the Kanarese version of the 
Bharata (c. 1440). 

4. A Modern period is now in its early stages, 
which has been brought into being by the impact of 
Western thought and the influence of English literature. 

The whole course of the history may be compared 
to a river receiving tributaries. During the first 
millennium of its course it is an unmingled stream of 
Jaina thought. In the twelfth century this is joined by 
the stream of Virasaivism ; and the two streams, like the 
Rhone and Saone at Lyons, flow side by side without 
mingling. In the beginning of the sixteenth century 
these two are joined by a Vaishnava afifluent ; and the 
united stream flows on until in the nineteenth century 
it is broadened and much modified by a great inrush of 
Western thought. 

These different sections of Kanarese literature differ 
not only in religious background, but also in literary 
form. Jaina works are generally in cha7)ipu, i.e. 
mingled prose and verse, the verse being in a great 
variety of metres and evincing great literary skill. 
Much Lihgayat literature is in prose ; its poetry is 
mostly in six-lined stanzas, called shatPadi ; some is in 
three-lined tripadi or in ragale. The longer Brahman- 
ical works are also in shatpadi ; but there are beside 
many lyrical compositions to popular airs. The litera- 
ture of the Modern period is mostly in prose ; but a 
popular form of composition is yakshagana. 



TO A.D. 1160 

Sriinat parama gambhlra syddvdd-dnwgla-lajic/iafiani 
Jiydt trailokya-ndthasya iasaiiani Jina iCLsajiam. 

" May the sacred Jaina doctrine, the doctrine of the lord of 
the three worlds, be victorious ; — the supreme, profound syddvdda, 
the token of unfailing success." This couplet is placed at the 
head of most Jaina inscriptions. 


Up to the middle of the twelfth century practically 
every Kanarese writer belonged to the Jaina faith; and 
even after that date for several centuries some of the 
most scholarly writers continued to be Jainas. It is, 
therefore, well to preface the record of this period of 
the literature with a few notes on the Jaina religion 
and its connection with the Kanarese country. This is, 
indeed, necessary in order that there may be a suitable 
background for the story. 

Its Dominance in the Kanarese Country. For more 
than a thousand years after the beginning of the 
Christian era, Jainism was the religion professed by 
most of the rulers of the Kanarese people. The Ganga 
kings of Talka^, the Rashtrakuta and Kalachurya kings 
of Manyakheta, and the early Hoysalas were all Jainas. 
Although the Kadambas and early Chalukyas were of 
the Brahmanical faith, they were very tolerant of 
Jainism, and did not withhold patronage from its 
writers. Hiuen Tsang, in the seventh century, records 


that he found the Jainas very numerous in these parts ; 
and they seem to have been very successful in dispu- 
tation with their rivals, the Buddhists. The Pandyan 
kings of Madura were Jainas ; and Jainism was dominant 
in Gujarat and Kathiawar. On the other hand, the 
Pallavas of Kahchi, and the Cholas of Uraiyur and 
Tanjore, were strongly Hindu and hostile to Jainism. 

Its Introduction into South India. Jainism was intro- 
duced into South India at some period prior to the 
Christian era. An eminent Jaina leader, of the name 
of Bhadrabahu, either in Pataliputra or Ujjayini, antici- 
pating a prolonged famine in North India, led a large 
community of Jainas towards the south, and travelled 
as far as the two rocky hills, now called Sravana Belgola 
(" Belgola of the Jainas "), in the centre of the Mysore 
country. This is spoken of by the Jainas as the great 
Digambara migration, and marks an epoch in their 

So far all scholars are agreed. Jaina traditions 
state that this Bhadrabahu was the well-known h-tda 
kSvalin {i.e. one of the six teachers who had complete 
knowledge of the Jaina Scriptures), who was a con- 
temporary of Chandragupta, the founder of the Mauryan 
Empire. They say, further, that Chandragupta, who 
ceased to reign in 297 B.C. at the age of fifty, but of 
whose death the secular histories say nothing, laid 
aside his sovereignty to become a Jaina ascetic, and 
that he accompained Bhadrabahu to the south, and was 
the sole attendant permitted to remain with him when, 
feeling that his end was approaching, he ascended the 
smaller hill at Sravana Belgola and took the vow of 
sallekha7ia, or renunciation of life by voluntary star- 
vation. Also that Chandragupta remained on the spot, 
and died there twelve years later by the same rite. 
Some scholars, on the other hand, are of opinion that 
the Bhadrabahu in question lived in the first century 
before Christ, and that the Digambara migration to the 
south took place then. 

Whatever may be the actual historical facts, the 
tradition about Chandragupta has for thirteen hundred 



years or more been accepted as true by the Jainas. 
Sravana Belgola became a place of pilgrimage. Many 
devotees, both male and female, including some of royal 
rank, took the vow of euthanasia on the same hill ; and 
their piety and endurance are recorded in numerous 
inscriptions on the rocky hillside. The hill became 
gradually covered with temples, the most ancient 
being one named after Chandragupta. In A.D, 983 
a unique monument was dedicated on the adjoining hill. 
A colossal image, 57^ feet high, of a nude Jaina ascetic, 
was carved out of the living rock on the summit of the 
hill. With serene and placid features it has stood there 
for almost a thousand years looking over the plain, 
whence it is visible for many miles. ^ 

Principal Tenets. The Jaina religion is an offspring 
of the same movement of thought as that which pro- 
duced Buddhism ; and the two religions have many 
points of similarity. In neither is any cognisance taken 
of a Supreme Being, Creator and Ruler of the World. 
The reverence of the worshipper is bestowed upon 
certain men, who are regarded as having by ascetic prac- 
tices gained complete mastery over bodily passions. 
These inen are called Ji7ias, or victors, and Tirthan- 
karas (or Tirthakaras), that is, those who have crossed 
the ocean of human distraction and reached the shore of 
eternal placidity.^ Twenty-four of these are especially 
named, the latest being Vardhamana Mahavira, a 
slightly older contemporary of Gautama Buddha. The 

' There are two similar images of the same saint, Gommata , in 
the Tuluva country — one at Karkala, 41 feet high, dating from 
1432 ; the other at Yenur, 35 feet, executed 1604. They are all on 
hill tops, and within the Kanarese country; and are said to be the 
largest free-standing statues in Asia (Vincent Smith's History 
of Fine Art in hidia) . The name Gommata does not occur else- 
where in India, and seems not to be known to the Jainas of the 
North. He is identified in Jaina works with Bahubali, son of 
the first Tirthankara, and brother of the Emperor Bharata. 

' This was the original meaning. But modern Jainas use it 
in the sense of the Founder of the four tirthas or orders (monks, 
nuns, lay-brothers and lay-sisters) that collectively constitute 3, 
Jaipa Sangha (Stevenson, fjeart of Jainism, p. xv). 


images of these Tirthankaras are set up in the temples, 
and reverenced as embodying the Jaina ideal of the con- 
quering life. The legendary accounts of their lives, 
showing the greatness of their renunciation, and through 
what struggles they succeeded in snapping the bonds of 
ka?-ma and attaining complete detachment from the 
senses, form the subject of the Jaina PurClJias. In 
choosing these as subjects for their poems they were 
actuated by the same motives as Milton when he wrote 
the Paradise Lost, or Caedmon when he sang of the 

The following are the names of the Tirthankaras, 
who all bear the epithet of Nat ha, " Lord " : 

1. Rishabha 9. Pushpadanta 17. Kunthu 

2. Ajita 10. Sitala 18. Ara 

3. Sambhava 11. Sreyamsa 19. Malli 

4. Abhinandana 12. Vasupujya 20. Munisuvrata 

5. Sumati 13. Vimala 21. Nami 

6. Padmaprabha 14. Ananta 22. Nemi 

7. SuparSva 15. Dharma 23. Pargva 

8. Chandraprabha 16. ^anti 24. Vardhamana 

The lives of the last two closely resemble that of Gautama 
Buddha ; for, like him, after attaining enlightenment, they tra- 
velled for many years over the plain of the Ganges, preaching 
and making disciples, till they died at an advanced age. They 
may be regarded as historical. The others are purely legendary. 
All of them are represented as having been Kshatriya princes of 
North India. All but two belonged to the Ikshvaku line of kings, 
and ruled over one or another of the states along the Ganges 
Valley. All but four passed to nirvana from the Pargvanatha 
Hill in Bengal. The first, Rishabha, is said to have been the 
father of Bahubali (Gommata) and of Bharata, the Emperor 
from whom India derives its name of Bharata. The sixteenth, 
v^antinatha, King of Hastinapura, is said to have been emperor of 
all India. From his time the Jaina religion, which had been inter- 
mittent before, became permanently established. The twentieth, 
Munisuvrata, and twenty-second, Neminatha, were of the Hari 
line, i.e. of the same family as Krishna. Hence their story is often 
called a Harivami5a. Like Krishna, they are represented as dark- 
hued. Neminatha was cousin to Krishna and Balarama ; and his 
nirvana was from Girnar Hill in Kathiawar. 

It will thus be seen that the Jaina ideal was asceti- 
cism. Many of the Jaina writers whose names appear 
in this book are spoken of as viunis or yatis, i.e. men 


who practised the austerities of the ascetic life. The 
complete conquest of the weakness of the flesh 
expressed itself in the renunciation of clothing. The 
images in the Jaina temples of South India are all 
nude.^ The Jainas are divided into two sects, Digam- 
baras ("space-clad"), who, on occasion and as far as 
possible dispense with clothing altogether (as their 
founder, Mahavira, did); and ^vStambaras ("clad in 
white"). The yatis of the Kanarese country are 
Digambaras ; but they wear a yellow robe, which they 
cast off when taking meals. 

One of the most outstanding characteristics of the 
Jainas is the stress they lay on the duty of not taking 
animal life in any form. This is carried to such an 
extreme that Jaina monks wear a muslin cloth over 
their mouth, lest they should inadvertently breathe in a 
gnat ; and they carry a small brush with which to sweep 
the path in front of them, lest they tread on a creeping 
insect. This scruple largely debars Jainas from engag- 
ing in agriculture. 

The Vow of Sallekhana (called in Gujarati, Sa7i- 
tharo). The most striking illustration of the self- 
repressive character of Jainism is the vow of sallskhayia 
referred to above. When old age, incurable disease, 
sore bereavement, disappointment, or any other cause, 
had taken away the joy of living, many resolute Jainas, 
like some Stoics of the West, would hasten Yama's 
tardy footsteps by taking the vow of euthanasia. In 
spite of the fact that the taking of life is the greatest 
sin conceivable to a Jaina, an exception was made in 
favour of the vow of voluntary starvation, which was 
looked upon as the highest proof of that victory over 
the bodily passions which made a perfect Jaina. From 
the earliest Christian centuries until the nineteenth 
century the practice has survived. Jainas still take the 
vow in their homes when death is imminent. 

* In Gujarat also, Digambara images are nude ; but Svetam- 
bara images are given loin-cloths (Mrs. Stevenson, Heart of 
Jainism, p. 250) , 


The most notable scene of the rite is at Sravana Bel- 
gola. The devotee would renounce all possessions and all 
earthly ties, and resort to the bare rocky hill atSravana 
Belgola, immediately to the north of that on which the 
colossal statue to Gommata stands. There keeping his 
mind free, on the one hand from relentings and on the 
other hand from impatience for death, and letting his 
thoughts dwell on those who had conquered the flesh 
before and had attained the state of the gods, he would 
simply await release by death. The rock is covered 
with inscriptions recording the steadfastness of those 
who have fulfilled the vow. Among them occur the 
names of royal personages. Indraraja, the last of the 
Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, being overwhelmed by the 
Western Chalukyas in A.D. 973, died by this vow at 
Sravana Belgola in 982. When Vishnuvardhana's 
queen, Santala Devi, died, childless, at the very same 
time as her father also died, the widowed mother, 
Machikabbe, was disconsolate ; and the more so that 
her son-in-law had abandoned the Jaina faith for Vaish- 
navism. So she took the vow, and after severe fasting 
for one month, passed away. Of the numerous inscrip- 
tions upon the rock, some consist only of a single line. 
Others are more or less lengthy and florid. The first 
to be deciphered may be rendered as follows : 

Swift fading as the rainbow's hue 

Or lightning flash or morning dew, 

To whom do pleasure wealth and fame 

For many years remain the same ? 

Then why should I, whose thoughts aspire 

To reach the highest good, desire 

Here on the earth long days to spend ? 

Reflecting thus within his mind, 

The noble Nandi Sen 
All ties that bound to life resigned, 

To quit this world of pain. 
And so this best of anchorites 

The World of Gods did gain. 

Syadv^da. Jainas always speak of their philoso- 
phical system under the name of Syadvdda. Their dis- 
putants glory in the conquering power of this doctrine. 


and their inscriptions are invariably prefaced with the 
sloka given at the head of this chapter, and in which the 
doctrine is extolled. Sydd is the Sanskrit for " it may 
perhaps be," and Syadvada may be rendered, " the 
affirmation of alternative possibilities," but it is a highly 
technical term, 

The most helpful exposition of the meaning and importance of 
Syadvada has been given by Prof. Jacobi.^ He points out that it 
is best understood by considering its relation to the doctrines it 
was employed to oppose. The great contention of^ Advaitins 
was that there is only one really existing entity, the Atman, the 
One-only-without-a-second {ekddvitlyarn) , diUA that this is per- 
manent (^nitya) , all else being non-existent (a-sai), a mere 
illusion. Hence it was called the dtma-vdda, eka-vdda and nitya- 
vdda. Their stock argument was that just as there are no such 
entities as cup, jar, etc., these being only clay under various 
names and shapes — so all the phenomena of the universe are only 
various manifestations of the sole entity, atman. The Buddhists, 
on the other hand, said that man had no real knowledge of any 
such permanent entity ; it was pure speculation, man's knowledge 
being confined to changing phenomena — growth, decay, death. 
Their doctrine was therefore called anitya-vdda. As against both 
these, the Jainas opposed a theory of varying possibilities of Being, 
or various points of view {anekdnta-vdda) . Clay, as a substance 
may be permanent ; but as a jar, it is impermanent — may come 
into existence, and perish. In other words. Being is not simple, 
as Advaitins assert, but complex ; and any statement about it is 
only part of the truth. The various possibilities were classed 
under seven heads {sapta-bhafiga) , each beginning with the word 
sydd, which is combined with one or more of the three terms asti 
{"is"), ndsti {"isnot"), and avaktavya ("cannot be expressed"). 
These are enumerated in the following passage in Dr. Bhandar- 
kar's Search for Jaina Scripttires (pp. 95 fif.), to which Jainas 
often refer for its exposition : — 

" You can affirm existence of a thing from one point of view 
{sydd asti) , A&Tiy it from another (sydd ndsti); and affirm both 
existence and non-existence with reference to it at different times 
(sydd asti ndsti) . If you should think of affirming both existence 
and non-existence at the same time from the same point of view, 
you must say that the thing cannot be so spoken of (sydd avak- 
tavyah). Similarly under certain circumstances the affirmation of 
existence is not possible {sydd asti avaktavyah); of non-existence 
(sydd ndsti avaktavyah) ; and also of both {sydd asti ndsti avak- 

' See Report of the Intertiatiotial Congress of Religions, held 
at Oxford, 1908 ; and the article, Jainism, in Encyclopedia of 
Religion and Ethics > 


tavyah) . What is meant by these seven modes is that a thing 
should not be considered as existing everywhere, at all times, in 
all ways, and in the form of everything. It may exist in one 
place and not in another, and at one time and not at another."* 

Some Jaina Pandits illustrate the doctrine by pointing out that 
one and the same man may be spoken of under different relations 
as father, uncle, father-in-law, son, son-in-law, brother and 

Decline. From about A.D. 1000 the predominance 
of Jainism in South India began slowly to wane. This 
was due to a series of causes. First, the influence of 
Sankaracharya, whose inimical teaching gained ground 
during the ninth and tenth centuries. Second, the fall 
of the Ganga kingdom of Talka^ (1004) and the wide 
conquests and temporary domination of the Chola 
kings, who were bitterly hostile to Jainas. Rajendra 
Chola is said to have ravaged the country as far as 
Puligere, destroying Jaina temples and monasteries. 
Third, the conversion of the Ballal raja to the Vaishnava 
faith about 1100, Fourth, the revival of Virasaivism 
under Basava of Kalyana, about 1160, together with the 
overthrow of the Kalachuryas (1190), Fifth, the teach- 
ing of Madhvacharya in the thirteenth century, which 
gave a powerful impetus to Vaishnavism, Sixth, the 
rise of the strong Brahmanical kingdom of Vijayanagar 
in the fourteenth century. And finally, in the sixteenth 
century, a wave of Vaishnava enthusiasm, inspired 
by Chaitanya preaching the doctrine of Krishna- 
bhakti, swept over the peninsula, and completed the 
alienation of the people from the austere teaching of the 
Jainas.^ Despite this change in the attitude of the 
people, many works continued to be written by Jainas ; 
but their learned men lived in retirement and no longer 
enjoyed the patronage of courts. In 1838 one of these 
learned men, named Devachandra, of Maleyur, wrote 
for a lady of the Mysore royal family a prose work, 

' Quoted from Mrs. Stevenson's Heart of Jainism, p. 92, 

* On the other hand, the conversion to Jainism of Kumarapala, 

King of Gujarat (1143-73) by the Acharya Hemachandra, led to a 

great increase of its power in Gujarat. 


entitled Rajavali Kathe, which is an interesting com- 
pendium of Jaina traditions in South India. 


The earliest extant Kanarese work of which the date 
is known is the Kaviriijam^rga, or "The Royal Road 
of the Poets." This has been frequently attributed to 
the Rashtrakuta king, Nripatunga, and is commonly 
spoken of as Nripatunga's Kavirdjamdrga. But it is 
his only in the sense in which the English Authorised 
Version of the Bible is called King James' Version. 
Its real author was a poet at Nripatunga's court, whose 
name appears to have been Srivijaya. Nripatunga 
ruled from Manyakheta A.D. 814-877, and was a con- 
temporary of Alfred the Great. The middle of the 
ninth century, therefore, forms a starting point in the 
record of Kanarese literature. Whatever was written in 
Kanarese previous to that date has either not been 
hitherto recovered, or is not of ascertained date. 

The middle of the ninth century, however, is far 
from being the date of the beginning of Kanarese 
literature. We have abundant information of a large 
number of earlier writers, extending back into earlier 
centuries. The Kavirajamarga itself mentions by 
name eight or ten writers in prose and verse, saying 
these are but a few of many ; and it quotes, discusses 
and criticises illustrative stanzas from other poets whose 
names are not mentioned. Moreover, the character of 
the book, which is a treatise on the methods of the poets 
(see p. 110), itself implies that poetical literature was 
already of long standing and widely known and appre- 
ciated. The author testifies expressly (I, 38, 39), that 
"in the Kanarese country, not students only, but the 
people generally have natural quickness in the use and 
understanding of verse." 

In the present chapter such information will be 
given as is available, not of all, but of the more notable, 
of these earlier poets, copies of whose works have not 
yet come to light. 


Early Kanarese writers regularly mention three 
poets as of especial eminence among their predecessors. 
These are Samanta-bhadra, Kavi Parameshthi and 
Pujyapada. These are apparently not among those 
named in the Kavirajaviarga. We are not absolutely 
certain that they wrote in Kanarese ; we know only of 
their Sanskrit works, Sanskrit being the learned 
language of that time as Latin was of the Middle Ages 
in Europe. But inasmuch as they are so uniformly 
named by later Kanarese writers as eminent poets, it is 
probable that they wrote in Kanarese also ; and what we 
know of them should be recorded here. 

Samanta-bhadra should probably be placed in the 
sixth century. He was a brilliant disputant, and a 
great preacher of the Jaina religion throughout India. 
Pataliputra (Patna), Thakka (in the Panjab), Sindh, 
Vaidisa (Bhilsa, in Central India), Karahataka (Karha^ 
in Satara district), Vanarasi (Benares), and Kaiichi are 
especially mentioned as among the places he visited. It 
was the custom in those days, alluded to by Fa Hian 
(400) and Hiuen Tsang (630), for a drum to be fixed in 
a public place in the city, and any learned man, wishing 
to propagate a doctrine or prove his erudition and skill 
in debate, would strike it by way of challenge to dispu- 
tation, much as Luther nailed up his theses on the door 
of the church at Wittenberg. Samanta-bhadra made 
full use of this custom, and powerfully maintained the 
Jaina doctrine of Syadvada. It is told of him that in 
early life he performed severe penance, and on account 
of depressing disease was about to make the vow of 
sallskhana, or starvation ; but was dissuaded by his guru, 
who foresaw that he would be a great pillar of the Jaina 
faith. He is said to have converted Sivakoti, the king 
of Kaiichi,from Saivism, by some miraculous performance 
in the Kaiichi temple. Old Kanarese commentaries on 
some of his Sanskrit works still exist, but of any Kan- 
arese works by him we have no trace. 

Pujyapada, also called Devanandi, belongs to the sixth 
or seventh century. He was a Jaina muni, or anchorite, 
who practised yoga, and was believed to have acquired 


the extraordinary psychic powers which yogis claim. He 
travelled throughout South India, and went as far as 
Videha (Behar) in the north. His learning extended 
over a wide range. He wrote on Jaina philosophy ; 
and also a treatise in Sanskrit on medicine, which long 
continued to be an authority (see pp. 37 and 45). But 
his fame rests chiefly on his grammatical works. He 
not only wrote a commentary on Panini, called Paymii 
Sabddvatara, but he composed a Sanskrit grammar of 
his own, entiled Jamendra, which obtained great repute 
(see below, p. 110). One of his disciples, Vajranandi, is 
said to have founded a Tamil sahgha in Madura. 

Concerning KaviparamSshthi less is known. He 
probably lived in the fourth century. He may possibly 
be the same as the KavUvara referred to in Kaviraja- 
mdrga, and as the KaviparamSivara praised by Chavunda 
Raya (978) and Nemichandra (1170), all these names 
having the same meaning (" eminent poet ") and possibly 
being only epithets. 

Whether or not the above trio wrote in Kanarese, 
there is information about many other writers who 
certainly did. Among these especial mention should be 
made of ^rtvarddhadeva, called also from his birthplace 
Tumbuluracharya, who wrote a great work called 
Chudamayii ("Crest Jewel"). It was a commentary 
on the Tattvartha Mahasastra, and extended to 96,000 
verses. Two facts make clear the greatness of this work. 
An inscription of A.D. 1128 (E.C. II, No. 54) quotes a 
couplet by the well-known Sanskrit poet, Dandin, of the 
sixth century, highly praising its author, Srivarddhadeva, 
as having "produced Sarasvati \i.e. learning and 
eloquence] from the tip of his tongue, as Siva produced 
the Ganges from the tip of his top-knot." And Bhattaka- 
lahka, the great Kanarese grammarian (1604), refers to 
the book as the greatest work in the language, and as 
incontestable proof of the scholarly character and value 
of Kanarese literature. If the author of the couplet 
quoted is correctly given as Dandin, Srivarddhadeva 
must have been earlier than the sixth century. It is 
unfortunate that no copy has yet been found of this great 


work, which appears to have been still in existence in 
Bhattakalanka's time. 

Other early writers mentioned in the Kavirdjamar ga, 
but whose works are lost, are Vimala, Udaya, Nagdr- 
ju7ia, Jayabafidhu, DurvmUa and ^rivijaya. For such 
fragmentary information as is available of these, the 
Kanarese student is referred to the Karnataka Kavi 
Charite. Mention may also be made of Gunaiiandi{c. 900), 
quoted by the grammarian, Bhattakalanka, and always 
called by him Bhagavdn, "the adorable"; he was the 
author of a logic, grammar and sahitya, i.e. a composi- 
tion in literary, rhetorical style. 

Much interest attaches to the name of Diirvijilta. 
He was the author of ^abdavatdra ; of a Sanskrit version 
of Gunadhya's Brihat-Katha ; and of a commentary on 
the difficult 15th sarga of Bharavi's KirHtarjiuiiya} 
He has been supposed to be identical with the Ganga 
king of the same name, who ruled 482-522. Whether 
this is so or not will depend partly on the dates of 
Gunadhya and Bharavi. Of Gunadhya see p. 38 note. 
Of Bharavi we only know that he was earlier than 610, 
when he is mentioned along with Kalidasa as a famous 
poet. If he was a contemporary of Kalidasa, he would 
belong to the fifth century. Unless he was yet earlier, 
it is scarcely probable that his work would have been 
known in South India as early as the date of the Ganga 
king. Future researches may decide this point. 

Although none of the books mentioned in this 
chapter have yet come to light, some may still be 
discovered ; for there are old Jaina libraries which have 
been jealously guarded from alien eyes (sometimes 
buried below ground) and whose contents are not yet 
fully known. 

* This sarga contains a number of stanzas ilh:stratins? all 
kinds of verbal tricks, like those described in Dandin's Kdvyddarsa 
(" Mirror of Poesy, " end of sixth century). E.g . stanza 14 contains 
no consonant but n except a ^ at the end {A^a nonanunno imnnono, 
etc.) ; and in stanza 25, each half-line, if read backwards, is identi- 
cal {Devdka nini kdvdde, etc.). l/lsiQ^oneWs History of Sanskrit 
Literature . 


Stanzas from the Kavirajamarga. A.D. 850 


In all the circle of the earth 

No fairer land you'll find, 
Thau that where rich sweet Kannada 

Voices the people's mind. 
'Twixt sacred rivers twain it lies — 

From famed Godavari, 
To where the pilgrim rqsts his eyes 

On holy Kaveri. 

If you would hear its purest tone 

To Kisuvolal go ; 
Or listen to the busy crowds 

Through Kop'na's streets w-hich fiow ; 
Or seek it in Onkuuda's walls, 

So justly famed in song. 
Or where in Puligere's court 

The learned scholars throng. 

The people of that land are skilled 

To speak in rhythmic tone ; 
And quick to grasp a poet's thought, 

So kindred to their own. 
Not students only, but the folk 

Untutored in the schools. 
By instinct use and understand 

The strict poetic rules. (I. 36-39.) 

The original of the first line in the above verses may 
be quoted as a specimen of the Alliteration, which forms 
one of the graces of Kanarese poetical composition, but 
which cannot be reproduced in a translation : 

Vasudhd vilaya villna visada vishaya viseshani. 


During the first half of this period, the patrons of 
Kanarese literature were — in the north, the Rashtrakiitas 
of Manyakheta, and in the south, the Gangas of Talkad. 
In 973, the Rashtrakiitas were displaced by the Chalukyas 
who made Kalyana their capital. Not long afterwards 
(c. 1000) the Ganga kingdom, which had lasted for 



eight centuries, was overthrown by the Cholas. Its 
power passed, after an interval of Chola domination, to 
the Hoysalas or Ballal rajas, who ruled from 1040-1326. 
The Hoysala capital was at Dorasamudra (Halebid). 
They are noted for the highly ornate temples they 


The earliest author of whom we have information 
after the Kavirajamarga was Gtmavarma I , who wrote 
under the patronage of a Ganga king bearing the title 
Mahendrantaka, and therefore identical with Ereyappa, 
886-913. 'H.Qw^voiesi Harivar>t^a ox Nsmi?iat ha Pur ana, 
and also a book called ^fldraka, in which he compares 
his royal patron to King Sudraka, the reputed author of 
the Sanskrit drama Mricchakaiika, or " Clay Cart." 

Three poets of the tenth century are sometimes 
spoken of as the Three Gems. These are Pampa, Ponna 
and Ranna. They are all highly praised by later Kana- 
rese poets. 

Pampa, who will be called Adi Pampa to dis- 
tinguish him from a later poet, was born in 902. He 
belonged to a prominent Brahman family of Vengi ; his 
father however abandoned the Brahmanical faith for 
Jainism. The son became court-poet, and apparently 
also a general or minister, under a prince named Ari- 
kesari, who was a descendant of the early Chalukya kings, 
but at this time was a tributary of the Rashtrakutas. 
Arikesari's court was at Puligere (Lakshmesvar), and 
it is in the especially excellent Kanarese of this capital^ 
that the poet claims to write. It was in 941, when he 
was thirty-nine years of age, that the poet composed in 
a single year the two poems which have made his name 
famous, and which he says were intended to popularise 
what to the Jainas were sacred and secular history 

The first book was the Adi Pura^ia, and relates the 
history of the first Tirthankara. Mr. Narasimhacharya, 

* Compare the stanza quoted on p. 29. 


than whom there could be no better judge, and who has 
himself written Kanarese poetry, praises it as " unsur- 
passed in style among the Kanarese poets." 

In his next work, called Vikratndrjmia Vijaya, but 
more generally spoken of as the Paj?ipa Bharata, he 
tells the story of the Mahabharata. It is interesting as 
being the earliest extant Kanarese version of this epic. 
The poet, however, states in his preface that there had 
been many versions before his. It differs from Vyasa's 
account chiefly in the following particulars : — (1) Drau- 
padi is the wife of Arjuna only, not of the five Pandavas. 

(2) Arjuna is the chief hero throughout, and it is he 
and Subhadra who are finally crowned at Hastinapura. 

(3) The book terminates at Arjuna's coronation, the 
later parvas not being included, (4) The poet deliber- 
ately identifies his patron, Arikesari, with Arjuna, and 
so makes him the real hero. In Oriental style he 
compares him to Vishnu, Siva, the Sun, Cupid, etc.^ 
This flattery mar-s the beauty of the work, although the 
poem has the advantage of being less Sanskritic in 
vocabulary than the earlier one. The author was re- 
warded with the grant of a village. 

Contemporary with Pampa was Ponna, who, like 
Pampa's father, was originally of Vengi, and had come 
into the Kanarese country after his conversion to the 
Jaina faith. He wrote both in Sanskrit and Kanarese, 
and hence received the honorific title of Ubhaya-Kavi- 
Chakravarti ("Imperial Poet in Both Languages"). 
This title was given to him by his patron, the Rashtra- 
kuta king, Krishnaraja (called also Akalavarsha and 
Anupama), who was ruling at Manyakheta, 939-968. 
The poet's fame rests chiefly on his §anti Purana, 
which records the legendary history of the sixteenth 
Tirthankara. It was written at the suggestion of two 
brothers, who later became generals under a succeeding 
king, Tailapa, to commemorate the attainment of 
nirvana by their guru, Jinachandradeva. He was also 

' We may perhaps compare the way, much less emphatic, in 
which the EngUsh poet Spencer makes Queen Elizabeth the 
" Gloriana " of the Faerie Queen. 


the author of the Jniaksharaviale^ an acrostic poem in 
praise of the Jinas. Other works attributed to him 
have not been recovered. 

Ranna, the third member of the trio, was a Vaisya of 
the bangle-sellers' caste. Mr. Narasimhacharya speaks 
in high praise of his skill, fluency and fascinating style. 
He wrote under the patronage of two Western Chalukya 
kings, Tailapa (973-997), and his successor (997-1008), 
and from them received various titles of honour. The 
poet's first work was the Ajita Purana^ a history of the 
second Tirthankara, written in 993. It was composed 
at the suggestion of a devout lady, the daughter of one 
of the two patrons of Ponna. 

In his second work, Sahasa Bh'ima Vijaya, called also 
Gada-yuddha (the " Conflict with Clubs"), he tells the 
story of how Bhima fulfilled his vow to break the limbs 
of Duryodhana with his club andslay him. But through- 
out the poem his royal patron, Ahavamalla, whose name 
lent itself to the comparison, is likened to Bhima, and 
becomes the real hero. Other works attributed to this 
poet have been lost. 

Chavunda Raya, who was the patron of Ranna and a 
contemporary of the "Three Gems," was himself an 
author, and in other respects a very remarkable person- 
age. He was a minister of the Ganga king, Rachamalla 
IV (974-984) , and a general who by bravery in many 
battles had gained numerous titles of distinction. It 
was he who at enormous cost had the colossal statue of 
Gommateswara executed at Sravana Bslgola, and it was 
in recognition of this act of munificence that he received 
the title of Raya. He was also a patron of the poet 
Ranna, and himself has gained a place in the history of 
literature by a prose work, entitled T rishashti-lakshana 
Ma/ia-puraiia, but better known as Cliavundaraya 
Purana, containing a complete history of all the twenty- 
four Tirthankaras. The book is of special interest and 
value because it is the oldest extant specimen of a book 
written in continuous prose, and therefore enables us 
to gain a knowledge of the language as spoken in the 
tenth century. It is dated 978. 


About 984 Nagavarma I wrote the Chhandoynhiddhi, 
or " Ocean of Prosody," which, with additions by later 
writers, still remains the standard work on Kanares;e 
prosody. It is addressed by the author to his wife. In 
the account of the vritias, each verse is composed so as 
to be an example of the metre described in it. To him 
we also owe a Kanarese version of Bana's Sanskrit 
Kadambari, which relates the fortunes of a princess of 
that name. The author's family had come from Vengi, 
but he is spoken of as a man of Sayyadi, which is said 
to be a village in the Kisukadu Nad {i.e. near Pattadakal ; 
see map). He states that he wrote under the king 
Rakkasa Ganga, who was reigning in 984. He also was 
patronised by Chavunda Raya. 

The last three writers were all disciples of the same 
preceptor, who was also guru to the Ganga king, Racha- 


In the eleventh century there are not many names 
of Kanarese writers. This was, perhaps, owing to the 
disturbed condition of the country caused by the Chola 
invasions, in which the country was ravaged and many 
Jaina shrines were destroyed. 

In 1049, Srldharacharya wrote the earliest extant 
Kanares_e work on astrology, citing the Sanskrit astro- 
nomer Aryabhata (499). 

To about 1079 belongs Chaiidraraja, who (apart 
from the writers of sasanas) is the earliest Brahmanical 
poet in Kanarese literature. He lived under the 
patronage of Machi Raja, a general of the Chalukya 
king, Jayasimha, and for him wrote the Madana-tilaka, 
a short poem remarkable on account of its many ingeni- 
ous stanzas capable of scansion in various ways, or 
showing feats of literary manipulation of sounds and 
words. (See Karnataka Kavi Chariie, Vol. I, pp. 

To about the same time belongs Nagavar7nacharya 
of Balipura (Belgami, in Shimoga district, capital of 
the Banavase 12,000), where he built temples and 


bathing ghats. He was an Advaitin. His Chandra 
Chuciamani Sataka is a cento of verses in praise of 
detachment (vai?dgya); it sometimes bears the name 
of Jna,7ia-sara. 


To about 1105 belongs Nagachandra or AbJiiiiava 
Pampa (the " Second Pampa "), of whom special men- 
tion must be made, both for the merit of his style and 
the unique value of one of his works. Little is known 
of his personal history ; but the statement is probably 
to be accepted that he was one of a group of poets at 
the court of the Ballal raja, Bitti Deva, the same who 
afterwards became a Vaishnava and took the name of 
Vishnuvardhana (1104-1141). He wrote the Mallinatha 
Purana, giving the story of the nineteenth Tirthankara, 
a work which reveals great descriptive power. 

But especial interest attaches to his Ramachandra- 
charitra-purdna, commonly known as the Pampa 
RamAyana, which was written as a pendant to the 
Pampa Bhdrata of his predecessor. This work has 
unique value, because it preserves for us a Jaina version 
of the Ramayana, which differs in important respects 
from the Brahmanical version. While the main thread 
of the narrative coincides with that of the Valmiki 
Ramayana, there is a very wide difference in details. 

The following are some of the more noteworthy differences: — 
The whole atmosphere is Jaina. India throughout appears as 
a Jaina country. No reference is made to Brahmans or Brahman- 
ism. The hermits in the forest are Jaina yatis. Rama, Ravana 
and all the characters are Jaina, and generally end their career 
as Jaina yatis. 

The Rakshasas are only occasionally called by that name. 
They are generally stj'led vidyadharas (i.e. beings having the 
power of movement through the air).* In fact, all the inhabitants 
of the earth belong to one or other of two classes, khecharas 
^movers through the air) and bhiicharas (walkers on the earth). 
I.e. jinns and men. 

* The hero and many of the characters of the Sanskrit Buddhist 
drama Nagdnanda (seventh century) are represented as vidya- 
dharas, literally " possessors of (magical) knowledge." 


In place of the supernatural and grotesque marvels of the 
Brahmanic story we have a natural and comparatively credible 
narrative. For example, Sugriva, Hanumanta and their followers 
are not monkeys, but human beings whose standard bears the 
figure of a monkey {vanara-dhvaja) } No bridge is built across 
the sea to Lanka with torn-off tops of mountains ; the army is 
transported across the water through the air by nabhogaynana vidyd 
" as though " on a bridge (XII, 91). Ravana received the name 
" ten-headed " not because he really had ten heads, but because 
when he was bom his face was seen reflected on the ten facets of 
a jewel-mirror which was in the room. 

Rama and Lakshmana are not incarnations of Vishnu (there 
is, of course, no horse-sacrifice), but are called kdrana purushas, 
i.e. beings with a special destiny. They are ultimately identified 
with the eighth Baladeva and Vasudeva. Lakshmana is called 
Krishna, Ke§ava, Achyuta. Throughout the wanderings of the 
exile he is the champion and warrior on behalf of Rama, and per- 
forms all the great exploits ; and finally it is by his weapon that 
Ravana is slain. 

The minor details and episodes differ considerably from the 
corresponding ones in Valmiki. For example, Lakshmana and 
Satrughna have different mothers. Rama's mother is not called 
Kausalya, but Aparajita. Sita has a twin brother named Prabha- 
mandala, who was stolen in infancy, and only discovered his 
relationship when wishing to compete for SIta's hand. Nothing 
is said of Ravana 's being invulnerable by gods and demi-gods. 

Other Jaina versions of the Ramayana in Kanarese 
are the KumudSridii Ramayana in shatpadi (c. 1275); the 
Ramachaiidra-charitra by Chandrasekhara and Padma- 
nabha (1700-1750); and the Raniakaihavatara in prose 
by Devachandra (c. 1797). The story is also found, 
more briefly, in ChaimndaRaya Pura?ia{'^lS) , Nayasena's 
Dhar7namriia{1112) , andNagaraja's Punyasrava (1331), 
and other works. 

There is no equally wide divergence between the 
Jaina and Brahmanical versions of the Mahabharata. 
The explanation will probably be found in the fact that 
the Ramayana epic grew up in North-East India 
(Kosala and Videha), the home of Jainism and of Bud- 
dism ; and is the most famous Brahmanical outcome of 

' It Is interesting to remember that the standard of the 
Kadambas of Banavase, who ruled a great part of the Kanarese 
country from the third century to 566, was a flag bearing the 
figure of a monkey, and called vdnara-dhvaja. 


a cycle of floating traditions and legends, which took 
varying and independent forms, not only among Jainas 
and Buddhists, but among Brahmanisls themselves. 
The Ravi-charit-manas oi Tulsi Das differs considerably 
from Valmiki ; so does Kambam's Tamil Ramayana. 
The Buddhists have a Dasaratha Jataka, which makes 
no mention of Ravana, The oldest Prakrit poem of the 
Jainas, the Pafunachariya (= Padma-charita) of Vimala 
Suri, edited by Prof. Jacobi (Bhavanagar, 1914), and 
placed by him in the third century A.D., is yet another 
story dealing with the same characters as the Rama- 
yana. The Mahabharata, on the other hand, belongs 
wholly to North-West India. Panini, Pataiijali, and 
Amarasimha, who all lived in North-West India, 
mention the Mahabharata characters, but never the 
Ramayana characters. Hence there are no Buddhist, 
and only slight Jaina, variants of the Mahabharata story. ^ 

Other Poets (1100-1160). At the court of the Ballal 
Raja at Dorasamudra at the same time as Nagachandra 
were Kanti and Rajaditya. 

Kanti is the earliest known Kanarese poetess, and 
was of the Jaina faith. " Kanti " is the name given to 
Jaina nuns or female devotees. It is related that the 
king, to test her skill, made Nagachandra recite half a 
stanza, which Kanti would immediately complete ; 
somewhat after a fashion recently current in England 
of completing "Limericks." A further story, but less 
probable, is told of how Nagachandra laid a wager that 
he would compel Kanti to eulogise him in verse. To 
effect this purpose he pretended to swoon, and feigned 
death. When the poetess, struck with sorrow, had 
pronounced on him a panegyric, he sprang up and 
claimed to have won his wager. 

Rajaditya, a Jaina of Pavinabage, is remarkable in- 
asmuch as he devoted his poetical talents to the elucida- 
tion of mathematical subjects. With extraordinary skill 
he reduced to verse rules and problems in arithmetic, 
mensuration and kindred subjects. His writings are 

» See Indian Antiquary, Vol. XIX (1890), p. 378 ff. 


the earliest works on these subjects in the Kanarese 

Nayasena (1112) of Mulugunda, in the Dharwar 
district, is known by a book on Morals, entitled Dharma- 
mrita, in which he discourses in easy and pleasant style 
through fourteen chapters on as many forms of virtue, 
including courage, truthfulness, chastity, justice, etc. 
He says in the preface that he has set himself to avoid 
the needless use of Sanskrit terms, which was a fault 
of many contemporary poets. 

Nagavarma II (c. 1145) was the author of three 
important grammatical works, Kavyavalokana, Kariia- 
taka- Bhasha-bJulshana and Vastu-kosa. On these see 
page 111. 

Karnaparya (c. 1140) wrote, among other works, a 
Nemi7iatha-purana, or history of the twenty-second 
Tirthankara. It includes the stories of Krishna, the 
Pandavas and the War of the Mahabharata. 

Jagaddala Sovianatha (c, 1150) translated into 
Kanarese Pujyapada's Sanskrit Kalyana-karaka. This 
is the oldest extant book on medicine in the Kanarese 
language. The treatment it prescribes is entirely 
vegetarian and non-alcoholic. 

Vritta-vilasa (c. 1160) made a Kanarese version in 
champu of a Sanskrit work by Amitagati (1014), entitled 
Dharma-parlkshe . It tells how two Kshatriya princes 
went to Benares, and in successive meetings with the 
Brahmans there, exposed the vices of the gods as 
related in the sacred books ; e.g. it is shown that not 
one of the gods is fit to be trusted with the care of a 
girl, and the incredibility is urged of such stories as that 
of Hanumanta and his monkeys. By these discussions 
their faith in Jainism is confirmed. The work is of 
value as throwing light on the religious beliefs of the 
time when it was written. Brahma Siva of Pottanagere 
(c. 1125) is another controversial writer. In his 
Saviaya-parikshe, he points out the defects of rival 
creeds, and justifies the Jaina position. 

Br^hmanical Writers. Beside the Madaiia-tilaka and 
the Chandra-chuddviani-sataka already mentioned, the 


only work by a non-Jaina in this period was a champu 
version of the Panchatantra by Durgasiiiiha (c. 1145). 
He was a Smarta Brahman of Sayyadi in the Kisuka(Ju- 
nad, and held oflice under the Chahikya king, Jagadeka- 
malla (1139-1149). His work is based professedly on 
Guna^hya, whom he speaks of as a poet of the court of 
" Salivahana," by which we are probably to understand 
a Satavahana of Paithan.^ 

There were, it is true, other Brahmanical scholars, 
but they wrote in Sanskrit. As a rule, their literary 
work in Kanarese was confined to the composition of 
iasanas (edicts or deeds of donation, engraved on stone 
or copper). These are mostly in verse, and often 
exhibit considerable poetic skill. Special attention 
may be drawn to the sasanas dated 929, 1084, 1102, 1137 
and 1147, quoted by Mr. Narasimhacharya. 

Illustrative Extract from the Pampa Ramayana 
A.D.c. 1105 


The following attempt to reproduce, In abridged 
form, the spirit of a passage in the Pampa Ramayana 
(XIV, 75-105) will serve to illustrate (i) the Jaina 
atmosphere of the poem; (ii) its serious ethical tone; 
(iii) the nature of the champu style of composition — 
mingled prose and verse — the verse being of various 

Hearing of Lakshmana's perfect recovery from his wound, 
and of his preparation for a fresh attack, Ravana's ministers 
advised him to send Sita back to her rightful lord, and to make 
an alliance with Rama ; adding that he could not hope for victory, 
as Rama and Lakshmana were stronger than he, and uncon- 
querable. Thereat Ravana was greatly enraged, and said : 

* Of Gunadhya's date It Is only known that it was considerably 
earlier than' A. D. 600. His Brihat-katful, or " Great Story Book," 
was written in a " Paifiacha," i.e. local Prakrit, language, and is 
not now extant. But it was the basis of the great collection of 
stories on Sanskrit, called Katha-sarit-sagara (" Ocean of Rivers 
of Story ") by Somadeva (c. 1070). 


" Shall I, who made e'en Swarga's lord 

Before my feet to fall, 
Now meekly yield me, — overawed 

By this mere princeling small ? 
Nay, better 'twere, if so must be. 

My life be from me reft. 
I still could boast, what most I prize, 

A warrior's honour left. 

Natheless, to make my victory sure, 

I'll have recourse to magic lore. 
There is a spell, the shastras tell, 

Which multiplies the form. 
If this rare power I may attain, 
I'll seem to haunt the battle-plain. 

My 'wildered enemies shall see. 
Before, behind, to left, to right, 
Phantasmal Ravans crowd to fight. 

Whom darts shall strike in vain. 
Its name is bahu-rupini . 
'Tis won by stern austerity." 

That nothing might impede him in the acquiring of his magic 
power, Ravana issued orders that throughout Lanka and its 
territories no animal life should on any account be taken ; that 
his warriors should for a time desist from fighting ; and that all 
his subjects should be diligent in performing the rites of Jina 

Then entered he the Jaina fane 

His palace walls within. 
Attendant priests before him bore 

The sacred vessels, as prescribed 
In books of holy lore. 
And there to lord SantiSvara 

He lowly reverence paid ; 
Omitting no due ritual 

That might secure his aid. 

After worship had been performed with due solemnity, he 
took a vow of silent meditation ; and seating himself in the 
padmdsana posture, began a course of rigorous concentration of 
mind and suppression of the bodily senses. 

And there he sat, like statue fixed ; 
And not a wandering thought was mixed 

With his abstraction deep. 
Upon his hand a chaplet hung, 
With beads of priceless value strung, 
And on it he did ceaseless tell 
The mantras that would serve him well. 


When VibhTshana learned through spies what Ravana was 
doing, he hastened to Rama, and urged him to attack and slay 
Ravana before he could fortify himself with this new and 
formidable power. But Rama replied : 

" Ravan has sought Jinendra's aid 

In true religious form. 
It is not meet that we should fight 
With one engaged in holy rite, 

His weapons laid aside. 
I do not fear his purpose fell. 
No magic spell can serve him well 

Who steals his neighbour's bride." 

Vibhishana and Angadaare disappointed with this reply, and 
resolve to try and bi'eak Ravana 's devotions without the 
knowledge of Rama. So they send to disturb him some of the 
monkey-bannered troops. 

They rush toward the town in swarms upon swarms : 
They trample the corn, and they damage the farms ; 
They frighten and chevy the maidens about ; 
And all through the temple they shriek and they shout, 
And make a most fearful din. 

But Ravana stirred not ; — as still as a stone, 

His mind was intent on his japa alone. 

Then the yakshas, or guardian spirits of the Jina shrine, 
interpose, drive forth the intruders, and appeal to Rama and 
Lakshmana to withdraw them. Finally it is arranged that any- 
thing may be done to break Ravana's devotions, so long as his 
life is not taken and the palace and temples are not destroyed. 

Then Angada, heir to Kishkindha's wide soil. 

Determines himself Rilvan's penance to spoil. 

He mounts on Kishkindha, his elephant proud ; 

And round him his ape-bannered followers crowd. 

He rides through the suburbs of Lanka's fair town, 

Admiring its beauty, its groves of renown. 

He enters the palace, goes alone^to the fane ; 

With reverence he walks round Santi^vara's shrine. 

And in lowliness worships the image divine. 

When — sudden — he sees giant Ravana there, 

Seated, still as some mountain, absorbed in his praj'er ! 

Surprised and indignant, in anger he speaks : — 

" What ! miscreant, hypocrite, villain ! dost thou 

" In holiest temple thy proud forehead bow — 

" Who hast right ways forsaken, thy lineage disgraced, 

" The good hast imprisoned, the harmless oppressed, 

" And hast snatched from thy neighbour his virtuous wife, — 

" How canst t/um dare to pray in Santifivara's hall ! 

" Better think on thy misdeeds, and turn from them all, 


"Know by Rama's keen arrows in death thou shalt fall ; 
" And no magical rite the dread doom can forestall. 
" When the flames round thy palace leap higher and higher, 
" Too late thou digg'st wells to extinguish the fire ! " 

Thus saying, he tore off Ravana's upper garment and smote 
him with it ; he scattered the beads of his chaplet upon the 
ground ; he stripped Ravana's queen of her jewels, and slandered 
her sorely ; he tied her maidens in pairs by the hair of their 
heads ; he snatched off their necklace-s and hung them round the 
necks of the Jaina images ; and he defied and insulted Ravana in 
every possible way. 

The poor trembling women were frantic with fear. 
And tried to rouse Ravau. They bawled in his ear — 

" What's the good of thy japa ? Rise, save us from shame ! 

" Rise quickly and fight for thine ancient good name." 

But Ravana heard not, nor muscle did move, — 
As fixed as the Pole Star in heaven above. 

Then a thunderbolt's crash rent the firmament wide ; 

And adown the bright flash did a yakshinl glide. 

And swiftly took station at Ravana's side. 

" I have come at thy bidding," the visitant said, 

" I can lay on the field all thine enemies dead ; — 

" Save Hanuman, Lakshman and Rama divine, 

" Who are guarded by might that is greater than mine." 

" Alas ! " answered Ravan, with spirit depressed, 
" If those three remain, what availeth the rest ? " f 


I am indebted to Dr. J. N. Farquhar for the following valu- 
able information. The chronology of all the early Jaina writers 
who used Sanskrit and wrote on philosophy depends on the date 
of Umasvati, whose Tattvdrthadhigauta-sutra is the fountain-head 
of Jaina philosophy and also of the use of Sanskrit by Jainas. 
This date cannot be earlier than the fourth century, for he 
quotes the Yoga-sTitra, which cannot be dated earlier than A.D. 
300. Samanta-bhadra wrote a commentary on Umasvati 's great 
work, and the earliest author who quotes him is Kumarila, who 
flourished A.D. 700. Thus Samanta-bhadra must belong to the 
fifth, sixth or seventh century. Piljyapada, who also wrote a 
commentary on Umasvati, is placed by the Digambaras between 
Samanta-bhadra and Akalanka. As Akalanka is attacked by 
Kumarila, we get this order : — The Voga-sutra, not earlier than 
A.D. 300; UmSsvati, fourth or fifth century; Samanta-bhadra; 
Piijyapada; Akalanka; Kumarila, A.D. 700. 



FROM 1160-1600 

In the twelfth century two new religious movements 

showed themselves in the Kanarese country, and 
thenceforward steadily continued to gain strength. 
These were Lirigayatism, generally represented as 
originating with Basava in 1160, and Vaishnavism, 
originating with Ramanuja about 1120. The former 
began at once to aflect Kanarese literature ; the latter 
did not influence it to any extent until the fifteenth 
century. Jaina writers continued to be predominant 
during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and to 
hold their own in competition with the others for 
two centuries more. It will therefore be convenient 
to continue the account of Jaina literature till the 
break-up of the Vijayanagar kingdom about 1600. It 
falls into two periods, corresponding roughly to the 
times of the later Ballal rajas and of the Vijayanagar 
kings respectively. 



Lives of Tirthankaras. Many of the Jaina works 
are styled Purdnas, and bear the name of one or another 
of the Tirthankaras, whose lives they record. Rarely 
did a decade pass without one or more considerable 
works of this sort in champu ; as will be seen from the 
following list : 




Name of Purana ^- Jl^' Pf 


c. 1170 








c. 1195 




c. 1200 












c. 1235 

Gunavarma II 



c. 1235 








It will be noticed that three of the works treat of 
the popular twenty-second Tirthankara, who was 
related to Krishna. Some of the poets in this list 
deserve mention for works on other subjects also. 

Nemichandra was the author of the earliest known 
specimen of the Novel, or genuine work of fiction, in the 
Kanarese language. It is written in the usual champu in 
a pleasing style, but disfigured by erotic passages. It 
is entitled Li/avatl, and tells how a Kadamba prince 
saw in a dream a beautiful princess (the heroine) and 
she likewise dreamt of him. They were unacquainted, 
but after mutual search and various adventures were 
ultimately wedded. The story is based on the Sanskrit 
romance Vasavadatta by Subandhu (c. 610), but the 
scene is transferred from Ujjayini to Banavase. 

Nemichandra was eminent at the court of Vira 
Ballala, and at that of Lakshmana-raja, the Silahara ruler 
of Kolhapur. It was at the suggestion of Vira Ballala's 
minister that he undertook to write the Neminatlm- 
ptcrana. As the poet died before its completion, it has 
become known as the Arddha NSmi, the "Unfinished 
Life of Nemi." 

Janna was a man of varied gifts and considerable 
munificence, being both court-poet and minister at the 
Ballal court, and also the builder and beaut ifier of 
temples. He was a pupil of Nagavarma I. Beside the 
Purana named above, he wrote several metrical iasanas 
and also the YaSodhara-charitre (1209). This relates 
how a king was about to sacrifice two boys of noble 
birth to Mariamma, but was so moved by their story 


that he released them, and abandoned the practice of 
animal sacrifice. Janna's style is highly praised for its 
grace and dignity. 

Bandhiivaryna^ who belonged to the Vaisya caste, 
published (besides the Harivamsabhyudaya) a well- 
written book on Morals and Renunciation. It is entitled 
Jiva Sarnbodhana, because addressed to the jiva or soul. 

The two poets, Parsva-pandita and Giinavarnia II, 
lived at the court of the Saundatti rajas. 

Earliest Sangatya. Sisicniayana (c. 1232) was the 
earliest poet to write in sahgatya, a form of composi- 
tion which afterwards came into much vogue. It is 
especially intended to be intoned to the accompaniment 
of a musical instrument. He wrote two books in this 
style — Anjana-charitre, representing a portion of 
Ravishena's Sanskrit Pad?na-charitra; and Tripura- 
dahajia, the " Burning of the Triple Fortress," an 
allegorical poem in which Birth, Decay and Death form 
the " triple fortress " destroyed. 

Andayya (c. 1235) was the author of a work in 
champu usually known as the Kabbigara Kava (" Poets 
Defender "), but also called Sobagina Suggi ("Harvest 
of Beauty"), Madana-vijaya and Kd,vana-Gella ("Cupid's 
Conquest"). The special literary interest of the work 
is that it is written from beginning to end without the 
use of a single unnaturalised {tatsama) Sanskrit word, 
the vocabulary consisting entirely of tadbhava (natura- 
lised Sanskrit) and desya (indigenous) words. It was 
written at the suggestion of scholars for the express 
purpose of showing that this could be done ; but the 
example has not been followed since. The subject is the 
victory of Cupid. Angry with Siva, who had imprison- 
ed the Moon, he assailed him with his arrows, but was 
cursed by Siva to be separated from his bride ; but he 
found means to get release from the curse, and to 
rejoin his bride. 

Mallikarjuna (c. 1245) was brother-in-lavv to Janna, 
and father of the Kesiraja who wrote the Sabdamani- 
darpana. He was a muni and lived in the time of the 
Hoysala king, Vira Somesvara (1234-1254). He com- 


piled the Sukti-Sudh^rnava, called also the Kdvya-sara, 
a sort of "Gems from the Poets" — a very useful 
collection of verses from all previous poets, arranged 
under eighteen topics, such as descriptions of the sea, 
the mountains, the city, the seasons, the moonlight, the 
dawn, friendship, love, war, etc. It contains extracts 
from works otherwise lost. Only fifteen out of the 
eighteen chapters have as yet been found. He does 
not give the names of the poets quoted, but eighteen 
of them have been traced. A later Kavya-sara, 
" Selections from the Poets," was compiled in 1533 by 
Abhinava Vadi Vidyananda (see p. 47). 

Kesiraja (c. 1260) was author of the well-known 
standard grammar, Sabdamanidarpana (on which see 
below, p. 111). He came of a very literary family, being 
the son of Mallikarjuna, the nephew of Janna, and on 
his mother's side the grandson of another poet, 
Sahkara or Sumanobana, priest of the Yadava capital, 
whose works are lost. 

Kuvuideyidzi (c. 1275) wrote the Kumudendti Rania- 
ya7ia, in shatpadi metre (see p. 59). It follows the 
Jaina tradition, and is largely influenced by the Parnpa 
Ramayana. No perfect copy, however, has yet been found. 

Rafta-kavi (c. 1300), who was the lord of some Jaina 
town, is of interest because he wrote a quasi-scientific 
work, entitled Ratfa Mata or Ratta Sutra, on natural 
phenomena, such as rain, earthquakes, lightning, 
planets and omens. It was translated into Telugu by 
Bhaskara, a Telugu poet of the fourteenth century. 

Nagaraja (c. 1331) wrote in champu PmiyaSrava, 
fifty-two tales of Puranik heroes, illustrative of the 
duties of a householder. They are said to be transla- 
tions from Sanskrit. 

Maiigaraja I (c. 1360) wrote a book on medicine, 
called Khagendra Maiii-darpana, in which he quotes 
Pujyapada's work on medicine, of the fifth century. 

Competition with Lingayats and Vaishnavas. Dur- 
ing the Vijayanagar Period, the Jainas had to compete 



with Lingayats and Vaishnavas, both of whom were 
now increasing in numbers and influence. Often debates 
took place in the presence of the kings between the 
rival religionists. As early as 1368 the Jainas com- 
plained of persecution by the Vaishnavas ; and the king 
Bukka Raya, doubtless under the advice of his eminent 
minister, Vidyatirtha Madhavacharya, made them com- 
pose their quarrel, and decreed that each party should 
practise its religion with equal freedom. Copies of this 
degree are still extant. Nevertheless, the influence of 
the Jainas was steadily waning. 

Lives ol Jaina Saints. A large proportion of their 
writings continued to be the lives of Tirthahkaras, 
and of other devout and exemplary Jainas. The 
following are lives of Tirthankaras belonging to this 
time : 

A.D. Author Name of Purana No. of Tirthankara 

1385 Madhura Dharmanatha 15 

1508 Mangarasa Nemi-Jinesa 22 

1519 ^antiklrti ^antinatha 16 

1550 Doddayya Chandraprabha 8 

1578 Doddananka „ 8 

Madhura was court-poet of Harihara of Vijayanagar, 
whose prime minister was his patron. Besides the 
above work, he wrote a short poem in praise of 
Gommatesvara of Sravana Belgola. Although he 
belonged to the fourteenth century, he wrote in the 
scholarly style of the earlier Jaina poets. Mangarasa 
was a general of rank. He wrote several works 
containing stories of Jaina princes. 

The life of a pious prince, named Jivandhara-raja, 
appears to have been a favourite subject with the 
writers of this time. His story was reproduced from 
the Sanskrit, and told three times over in shatpadi — 
by Bhaskara of Penugon<^a (1424), Bommarasa of 
Terakanambi (c. 1485), and Kotesvara of Tuluva-desa 
(c. 1500). Another hero-saint was Naga-kumara, a 
wealthy man who learned to despise riches, and devot- 
ed himself to a religious life. His story was told by 
Bahubali of Sringeri (c. 1560). 


Poets of the Tuluva Country. The next four poets 
were all from the country below the Western Ghats. 
It is worth noting that it was during this period that the 
two colossal Jaina statues in that part of the country were 
erected — that at Karkala in 1431 , and that at Yenur in 1603. 

In 1533 Abhinava Vadi Vtdyananda of Gersoppa 
(Bhallataki-pura), an able lecturer and disputant, who 
championed Jainism both at Vijayanagar and at many 
of the provincial capitals, compiled the Kavya-sdra, an 
anthology of passages on forty-five different subjects 
from previous poets. It is similar to Mallikarjuna's 
Sukti-sudlmrriava. As he gives the names of many of 
the poets, who range from 900-1430, this collection is 
very useful. 

Salva (c. 1550), court poet of a prince named Salva- 
malla, ruling a city in the Konkan, wrote a Jaina 
version of the Bharata known as the Sdlva BMrata. It 
was, perhaps, intended to compete with the Krishia 
Raya Bharata, which had been finished not long before, 
as he bids his readers not to listen to faulty versions, but 
to follow this pure Jaina narrative. It is in shatpadi, 
and arranged in sixteen parvas, which differ from those 
of the Brahmanical version. 

Ratndkara-varni , a Kshatriya of Mudabidire, was the 
writer of several works. His Triloka-^ataka, written 
in 1557, gives an account of the universe (heaven, hell 
and intermediate worlds) as conceived by Jainas. His 
Aparajita-sataka discourses of morals, renunciation 
and religious philosophy. His largest work, Bharat- 
Hvara-charitre, tells the legendary story of the emperor 
Bharata, who, according to Jainas, was the son of the 
first Tirthahkara, and became a Jaina yati. Many 
songs by this author, on moral and doctrinal subjects, 
are current among Jainas, under the name of Annagala- 
pada, " Songs of the Brothers." 

NSmayina, also of the Tuluva country, wrote in 1559 
the Jnana-bhaskara-charite, in which he urges that 
contemplation and the study of the Sastras are far 
more valuable for the attainment of emancipation than 
either outward rites or austerities. 


Another poet deserving of mention is Ayata-varma, 
the author of the Kannac^a Rahia-karandaka (" Casket 
of Jewels"), a champu rendering from the Sanskrit 
work of the same name, giving a useful account of the 
beliefs and duties of Jainas, under the heads of the 
three Jaina "jewels" — right belief, right knowledge, 
and right conduct. His date is uncertain. He is 
conjecturally placed by Mr. Narasimhacharya at about 



A.D. 1160 

Namas tunga-Hras-chumbi-chayidra-chClviara-chdrave 
Trailokya-nagar-dramb ha-?nula-stamb hciya-Sanib have . 

"Adoration to Sambhit (Siva), adorned with the moon 
lightly resting like a royal plume upon his lofty head — to Him 
who is the foundation pillar for the building of the City of the 
Three Worlds." This, the opening verse of Bana's Harsha- 
charita, is usually placed at the commencement of Saiva 


The Lirigayats are found chiefly in the Kanarese 
and Telugu countries. They constitute thirty-five per 
cent, of the total Hindu population in the Belgaum, 
Bijapur, and Dharwar districts ; and ten per cent, in 
the Mysore and Kolhaptir States. They call them- 
selves Sivachars and Virasaivas. The latter name 
("stalwart Saivas ") distinguishes them from the 
three other classes of Saivas, viz. the Samanya-, 
Misra-, and Suddha-Saivas. The first two of these 
classes worship Vishnu as well as Siva ; the Suddha- 
and Vira- Saivas worship Siva exclusively. That which 
distinguishes the Virasaivas from the Suddha-Saivas, 
and is their most distinctive peculiarity, is the wearing 
always, somewhere on the person, of a linga, i.e. a small 
black cylindrical stone, representing the phallus, but 
symbolic of the deity. This is worn by both men and 
women, and is generally kept in a silver or wooden 
reliquary {karadige) suspended from the neck. The 


Jangamas, or Lingayat "religious," wear it on their 
head. The investiture with the linga is the most sacred 
rite of childhood. The lihga is taken out and held in 
the palm of the hand for worship, but must on no account 
be parted with throughout life. Lihgayats are strictly 
vegetarian in diet, and on this account all other castes, 
except Brahmans, will eat food cooked by them. As 
they do not admit Brahman claims to pre-eminence, 
there is hostility or aloofness between them and 
Brahmans. Basava, indeed, taught that men of all 
castes, and even outcastes, were eligible to enter the 
Lingayat community. 

Other peculiarities are that they do not cremate 
their dead, but bury them ; and that they permit the 
remarriage of widows ; and that every Lingayat is 
connected with some monastery.^ 

The scriptures of the religion are in Sanskrit, and 
consist of the twenty-eight Saivagamas, the earlier 
portions of which are said to be applicable to all Saivas, 
and the later portions to relate especially to Virasaivas. 
There is also an ancient Sanskrit work, called ^iva- 
gttd, to which a high place is given. By the unlearned 
the Basava- purdna and Chaii7iabasava-purll7ia are 
treated as authorities for their religion ; but the learned 
do not give them this place. 

The leading doctrines and practices of the Virasaiva 
religion are summed up in the technical terms, ashtava- 
ra7m?n, the "eight environments," or aids to faith and 
protections against sin and evil ; and shatsthala, the 
six stages of salvation. As these terms are peculiar 
to Lingayats, and continually recur in their literature 
and in the titles of their books, it is desirable to explain 
their meaning. 

The ashtAvaranam, or aids to faith, are: (1) Obedi- 
ence to a guru\ (2) Worship of a lihga; (3) Rever- 
ence for the jaiigama as for an incarnation of §iva ; 
(4) The devout use of ashes {vibhuli) made of cowdung, 

* See further Farquhar's Outline of the Religious Literature 
oi India, pp. 259-64. 


which are supposed to have great cleansing and 
sanctifying power ; (5) Wearing of a necklace, or 
rosary, of rudraksha (seeds of the Eleocarpits) , sacred 
to Siva and a charm of supposed spiritual efficacy ; 

(6) Padodaka, the washing in, or drinking of, water in 
which the feet of a guru or jahgama have been bathed ; 

(7) Prasada, the presentation of food to a guru, lihga 
or jangama, and eating sacramentally what is left ; 

(8) Panchakshara, the utterance of the five-syllabled 
ioxn\\\\2i naniah ^ivaya ("Obeisance to Siva"). With 
the sacred syllable Om prefixed, it is also called shad- 
akshara (six syllabled). Nowadays all these eight 
safeguards are often combined into a single sacramental 
ritual at the initiation of a Lihgayat child soon after 

The Shatsthala, or six stages of approximation 
towards union with the deity (Siva), are termed 
bhakti, viaheia, prasada, prd7iali?iga, iarana and aikya, 
the last being absorption into the deity. 

The word Sthala is also used to denote the eternal, 
impersonal, divine entity (also called ^iva-tattva), 
which manifests itself further as Linga-sthala (the 
personal deity to be worshipped) and Aiiga-sthala 
(the individual soul or worshipper) . The three degrees 
of manifestation of the deity are sometimes described 
as the Bhdva-linga, PrUna-liiiga and Ishta-linga, the 
first corresponding to spirit, the second to the life or 
subtile body, and the third to the material body or 

Reverence is paid to sixty-three ancient saints, called 
pnratayias, mentioned also in the Tamil Pcriya-pHra?ia?H 
and 770 later or mediaeval saints {?mtana-puratana) . 
Of the former, although all are Saivas, only eight are 
Virasaivas. Among the later saints are included Basava 
and his chief disciples. Manikka Vachakar, the famous 
Tamil mystic (c. 900), is claimed as one of them, and 
said to be identical with a Manikayya mentioned among 
the Saiva saints in the Channabasava-Purdna. 

Lihgayatism was the state religion of the early 
Wo(^eyars of Mysore and of Umma^iir from 1399-1610, 


and of the Nayaks of Keladi (Ikkeri or Bednur) from 
1550-1763. Their principal juafha in the Mysore 
country is at Chitaldrug. 


Basava, the reputed founder of the Lihgayat faith, 
but really only one of its revivers and propagandists, 
was an Aradhya Brahman. According to the traditional 
account he was the son of Madiraja and Madalambike. 
He was born at Bagavadi in the Kaladgi district, but 
was taken to reside at Kappadi, at the junction of the 
Malaprabha and the Krishna, where there is a shrine 
dedicated to Siva under the name of Sahgamesvara, 
" Lord of the Confluence." Here he is said to have 
become conscious of a call to revive the Virasaiva faith. 
His first wife was the daughter of his maternal uncle, 
the prime minister of Bijjala, the Kalachuri king, who 
ruled at Kalyana, 1156-1167. When his father-in-law 
died, Basava was invited to succeed him as prime 
minister. The Jainas say that Basava owed his position 
and influence largely to his having a very beautiful 
sister, Padmavati, whom the king became enamoured 
with and married ; and that the king gave himself up 
to the charms of his bride and left the reins of power 
in his minister's hands. Basava had another sister, 
Nagalambike, who had a son named Channabasava. In 
concert with him Basava began to propound his new 
doctrine and new mode of worshipping Siva. He 
speedily gained a large number of followers, and 
appointed many priests, who were called Jahgamas. 
Having charge of the king's treasury, he spent large 
amounts in supporting these Jangamas. Bijjala had 
another minister, a Brahman, named Manchanna, who 
vigorously opposed Basava, and accused him of em- 
bezzlement. The king tried to arrest Basava ; but he 
fled, and, being joined by numerous adherents, defeated 
the king, who was compelled to reinstate him in all his 
dignities. There was, however, no real reconciliation. 


Of what followed there are varying accounts. The 
Lihgayat account is that the king, having wanted to 
put out the eyes of two Lihgayat devotees, Basava 
pronounced a curse upon Kalyana, and directed one of 
his disciples to slay the king ; and that he then fled to 
Sahgamesvara, and was " absorbed into the Lihga " 
(i.e. died) there. The Jaina version is that when the 
king was returning from a military expedition, and was 
encamped on the bank of the Bhima River, Basava 
sent him a poisoned fruit, and then fled to Ulavi, at 
the foot of the Western Ghats, where he was besieged 
by the king's son, and in despair threw himself into 
a well.^ 

An inscription at Manargoli (eleven miles north-west 
of Bagavadi) of the sixth year (1161) of Bijjala, records 
a grant to a temple which a Basava had erected there. 
It gives his lineage, mentioning his father, Chandiraja, 
and mother, Gangambike, as residing at Manargoli. It 
speaks of Basava in very high terms as "without an 
equal in devotion to Siva," and as the "virtuous father 
of the world " who had brought fame to the village. 
This seems to refer to the Apostle of Lihgayatism ; 
but no mention is made of his exaltation to the position 
of prime minister. 

Myths afterwards gathered round Basava's name, 
and later generations regarded him as an incarnation of 
Nandi, the vehicle of Siva, and as having worked 
numerous and wonderful miracles. All these things 
will be found written in the Basava-purdiia (1369), the 
Mala Basava-7'llja-charitre (c. 1500), the VrishabhSndra 
Vijaya (1671), and other works. 

To Basava are attributed some prose works exposi- 
tory of the Lihgayat faith, viz. Shai-sthala-vachana, 

* The Jaina account is found in the Bijjala-rdja-charitre 
(c. 1650); the Lingayat account in the Basava-purana (1369). 
A later Lingayat account, in the Channabasava-purdna (1584) 
absolves Basava from any part in the king's death ; but this 
looks like an apologetic afterthought. A source of information 
nearer to the time of the occurrences than any of these should 
be the Telugu Basava-purana of Palkurike Soma (c. 1195), if it 
is extant. 


or " Discourses on the Six Stages of Salvation "; Kala- 
jnana-vacha?ia, " Forecasts of the Future "; Ma?itra- 
goPya, Ghatachakra-vachana and Raja-yoga-vacha?ia. 

Other Apostles of Ling^Lyatism. As the chief credit 
of the Lingayat Revival has been universally attributed 
to Basava, it may be well to state briefly the evidence 
which shows that he was only one of a number of 
persons to whom it was due. 

(i) Several of his personal associates are expressly 
named. The chief of these was Channabasava. Even 
in the tradition itself, Channabasava is represented as, 
in some respects, superior to his uncle. In him the 
pranava, or sacred syllable Om, is said to have become 
incarnate, to teach the doctrine of the Virasaiva faith 
to Basava ; and whereas Basava is represented as an 
incarnation of Nandi, Channabasava was 6iva himself. 
As Basava must have been much occupied with affairs 
of State, the religious portion of the movement may 
have been, from the beginning, largely under Channa- 
basava's direction. It appears that when, after his 
uncle's death, he was readmitted to the royal favour, 
he became the acknowledged leader. 

Other leading associates of Basava were Madivala 
Machayya, Prabhudeva and Siddharama. Of these the 
last-named is mentioned as having made a tank and 
consecrated many lihgas at Sonnalige. Of all these 
early apostles of Lifigayatism wonderful stories are 
told, which are the subjects of the Chanriabasava-piirajia 
(1585), the Madivalayya-sHngatya, the Prablmlinga-llle 
(c. 1430), the SiddhardTna-purdna (c. 1165), and other 

(ii) Frequent mention is made in Lingayat writings 
of Five Acharyas, whose names are Revana (or 
Renuka), Marula-siddha, Panditaradhya (or Malli- 
karjuna), Ekorami-tande (or Ekorama) and Visvesvar- 
acharya. The first and third of these belonged to 
the Telugu country — Revana to Kollipaka (midway 
between Warangal and Golkonda), and Panditaradhya to 
Vengi. Both of these, as well as Ekorama, must have 
been contemporaries of Basava. For it is related of 


Panc^itaradhya that, after having championed the 
Virasaiva cause at the Chola court, he was on his way 
to visit Basava when he heard of the latter's death. 
Of Ekorama it is said that he converted Bijjala's 
queen ; and of Revana that he was the instructor of 
Siddharama. The previous incarnations of these 
acharyas, referred to in the Basava-purapa, may be 
dismissed as fabulous. 

(iii) An inscription of about 1200 at Ablur in the 
Dharwar district records the doings of one, Ekanta 
Ramayya, an ardent worshipper of Siva, who defeated 
the Jainas in controversy and displaced their temple by 
a temple to Siva. He is said to have effected this by 
laying a wager that he would cut oflE his own head, and 
that it would be restored seven days later by the grace 
of Siva. Bijjala, hearing of this miracle, summoned 
him to court, and gave him gifts of land for the Abliir 
temple. As these events are placed shortly before 1162, 
he must have been a contemporary of Basava, but 
Basava is not named. In the Basava-pura7ia, however, 
which was written 200 years later, it is said that 
Basava himself was present when the wager was made. 
It is to be noted that even the sasana is thirty-three 
years later than the alleged miracle.'^ 

(iv) There were in connection with the court of one 
of the Ballal rajas, three Saiva poets, Harisvara, 
Raghavahka and Kereya Padmarasa. (See pp. 60, 62.) 
There has been some difficulty in fixing the particular 
Ballal raja under whom they lived ; but Mr. Narasimha- 
charya has given reason to show that it was probably 
Narasimha I (1141-1173). If so, they must have been 
contemporaries of Basava. But they make no reference 
to him, and must have drawn their inspiration from 
some other source. 

From these considerations it seems probable that 
the Virasaiva movement had already been for some 
time in progress before Basava ; and that the pro- 

^ See Epigraphia Indica, v. (1899), Indian Antiquary, xxx. 
(1901), and Bhandarkar's VaisAnavism, Saivism and Minor 
Religious Systems, pp. 131-40. 


minence which his name has received is clue chiefly to 
the fact that it was his influence at court which gave 
the movement the political opportunity that led to its 
rapid dissemination in the Kanarese districts. 


The Lingayat propaganda was aided by a large 
number of writers who flooded the country with tracts 
commending the new creed. These tracts are called 
Vacha7ias, or " Sentences," and form a unique feature of 
Lingayat literature. They are in easily intelligible 
(sometimes even alliterative) prose, requiring no 
learning to understand. To this fact is doubtless due, 
in considerable measure, the popularity of the move- 
ment. We may perhaps compare the effect produced 
in England in the fourteenth century by Wycliffe and 
his preachers and MS. Gospels. In form, the vachanas 
are brief disconnected paragraphs, each ending with one 
or another of the numerous local names under which 
Siva is worshipped. In style, they are epigrammatical, 
parallelistic and allusive. They dwell on the vanity of 
riches, the valuelessness of mere rites or book- 
learning, the uncertainty of life, and the spiritual 
privileges of the Siva-bhakta. They call men to give 
up the desire for worldly wealth and ease, to live lives 
of sobriety and detachment from the world, and to turn 
to Siva for refuge. They are seldom controversial, but 
almost entirely hortatory, devotional and expository. 
They are still recited by Lingayat acharyas for the 
instruction of their followers. 

Some of the vachanas have a section called kala- 
JTiana, which gives a forecast of the future. These 
portions speak of the coming of an ideal king, named 
Vira Vasanta Raya, by whom Kalyana will be rebuilt 
and the Lifigayat religion come to its full glory. 

The vachana literature began in the time of Basava, 
to whom are attributed six works of this sort ; and it 
continued to be produced through the next three or four 
centuries. Only a few of the vachanas can be accurately 


dated, a great number being anonymous. In these 
cases one author is distinguishable from another only 
by the divine name which he invokes. Many of the 
tracts bear identical titles, the most common of which 
is Shai-sthala-vachana. 

Specimens of the Vachanas 

By Basava 

Oh pay your worship to God now — before the cheek turns 
wan, and the neck is wrinkled, and the body shrinks — before the 
teeth fall out, and the back is bowed, and you are wholly depen- 
dent on others — before you need to lean on a staff, and to raise 
yourself by your hands on your thighs — before your beauty is 
destroyed by age, and Death itself arrives. Oh, now worship 

Those who have means will not devote them to the building 
of a temple to God (Siva). Then I, though a poor man, will 
build Thee one, O Lord. My legs shall be the pillars, my body 
the shrine, my head the golden finial. Hearken, O Kudala- 
sangama-deva ! The fixed temple of stone will come to an end ; 
but this movable temple of the spirit will never perish. 

The leg does not tire of walking, the eye of seeing, the 
hand of working. The tongue does not weary of singing ; the 
head does not ache with the binding of the hair ; nor does the 
mind of man desist from desire. Neither shall my heart weary 
of worshipping and serving Thee, O Kiidala-sangama-deva. 

By Urilinga-peddi (c. 1180) 

Camphor, when touched by fire, itself turns to flame. Salt 
immersed in water is dissolved into water itself. So the disciple 
who companions with the True Guru becomes such as the Guru 
himself. " Like seed, like shoot," is a true saying. ViSvegvara 
knows— he who is dear to Urilinga-peddi. 

By Mahadevi-akka 

(Of whom it is told that the lord of her city wished to wed 
her, but she spurned his advances, renounced the pleasures of the 
world, and went to Kalyana and joined the companions of 

What sort of a man is he who, having built his house on the 
mountain, is afraid of the wild beasts there ? or, having built it 


on the seashore, is alarmed by the roar of the surf ? or, If he 
live in the market street, cannot bear the noise of the traffic ? 
Then seeing we have been born into the world as it is, we must 
not be afraid of its praise or its blame, but abstain from passion, 
and rest unperturbed. Hear my prayer, O Mallikarjuna-deva. 

By Swatantra Siddhalingesvara (c. 1480) 

How sadly they fall who are bewitched by the harlot Desire ! 
Be they ministers or monks, be they scholars or saints, inhabitants 
of earth or dwellers in heaven, she makes them all to hanker after 
riches. Who is able to resist her enchantments ? Only those 
who have found a refuge in the True Guru, Swatantra Slddha- 
lingeSvara. All others she makes to dance at her will. 


FROM 1160-1600 

Transition from Ancient to Mediaeval Kanarese. 

Whatever the explanation may be, it is a striking 
fact that the early Lirigayat period was marked by 
important changes both in grammatical usage and in 
literary form. The letter la was entirely dropped, and 
its place taken by (a or the half-letter r. The letter pa 
at the commencement of a word and in verbal forms 
was changed to ha. And there was a negligence in the 
observance of the rules of syntax and of rhyme {prasa), 
which is in marked contrast with the precision of the 
early Jaina poets. The hitherto dominant champu 
form of composition, though it still continued to be used 
by scholars, fell more and more into desuetude. All 
the metres hitherto used had been those which occur in 
Sanskrit ; but at this time new and purely Kanarese 
metres were introduced. These are especially the 
shaipadi (six-lined stanzas), the tripadi (three-lined 
stanzas), and the ragales (lyrical compositions with 
refrains). The first to use shatpadi was Raghavanka 
(c. 1165). He was followed, a hundred years later, by 
the Jaina Kumudendu (c. 1275). A hundred years later 
still, this metre was adopted in the Basava-purana 
(1369) and the Padmaraja-purana (c. 1385). It thence- 
forward became the most common metre of all later 
works, whether Lingayat or Vaishnava. Another 
literary form which dates from this period is the 
sdngatya, which appears first in 1232. It became very 
common after the middle of the fifteenth century. 



After Bijjala's death the northern part of the Kana- 
rese country (Kuntala) was thrown into disorder. The 
Kalachuri dynasty succumbed to the Yadavas of Deva- 
giri, whose interests were with the Marathi language. 
Most of the Kanarese country fell under the sway of 
the Ballal rajas, whose capital was at Dorasamudra 
(Halebid). We now proceed to give an account of the 
chief Lifigayat authors (other than Vachana writers) 
who lived in the time of these sovereigns. 

The earliest is Harisvara, called also Harihara, who 
was for a time chief revenue accountant of Halebi^ under 
Narasiiiiha Ballala. He lived for many years under the 
shadow of the Virupaksha temple at Hampe, and there 
he wrote his works. His first was a lengthy book in 
lyrical (ragale ) form, in praise of the sixty-three puratanas 
and other early Saiva saints. It is known as ^iva-ganada- 
ragale, or from the name of the first saint, Natnbiyafi- 
nana-ragale. He afterwards composed the Girija- 
kalyana, or " Legend of the Marriage of Siva and 
Parvati," which gained much popularity. It is written 
elegantly in the old Jaina style, and is highly praised 
by all subsequent Lihgayat writers. He also wrote 
Pampa-iatakam, a cento in praise of Virupaksha of 

R^ghav^nka was a nephew and disciple of Harisvara. 
He was born and lived at Hampe ; but he visited and 
won triumphs at the courts of D5rasamudra and Waran- 
gal, and spent the last years of his life at Belur in the 
Hassan district. He wrote Harikhandra-kavya, the 
legend of the inflexible truthfulness of kingHarischandra. 
It is said that his uncle, Harisvara, was displeased at 
his having written the praises of a Vaishnava king, 
and to make amends he wrote his other works, of 
which the chief are So7nanlltha-charitre, the history of 
Somayya of Puligere, whose boast was that he had 
crushed the Jainas, and compelled them to admit a 
Siva image into a Jaina temple ; Siddharama-purHna, 

LINGAYAT writers 61 

the history of Siddharama of Sonnalige (See p. 54) ; and 
Harihara-mahatva, in praise of Harisvara of Hampe. 
As already mentioned, he was the first to write in 
shatpadi, the form of verse which afterwards became 
so popular. An account of him, entitled Raghavaiika- 
charitre, was written by Siddha-nafijesa in the seven- 
teenth century. 

Kcrcya Padmarasa received his proenomen " Kereya" 
(tank-builder) through having caused to be made the 
Belur tank. He was minister of the Ballal raja 
Narasimha. When he had retired for some time from 
this oifice, and was residing at Belur, he was summoned 
back to the capital to withstand a Telugu Brahman, 
who had come to D5rasamudra preaching Vaishnavism. 
Travelling thither with a company of learned men 
reciting Saiva texts, he reached the capital, and so 
triumphantly vindicated the Virasaiva faith that, accord- 
ing to the contract, his opponent had to embrace it. 
Then he set out, via Hampe, on a pilgrimage to 
Benares, where he died. He wrote Diksha-bodhe, a 
volume in ragale representing a colloquy in which a 
guru instructs a disciple and occasionally quotes San- 
skrit slokas in confirmation of Saiva doctrine. He is 
the hero of the Padmamja-pjirana, written by ope of 
his descendants about 1385. 

On the date of Harisvara, Raghavarika and Kereya 
Padmarasa, see above p. 55. 

Kumdra Padmarasa, the son of the last-named 
writer, was the author of the Sananda-charitre, which 
tells how a rishi's son, hearing of the torments of the 
lost in hell, attempted to relieve their suffering by the 
power of the pane haks hart. 

P^kurike Soma (c. 1195) was a learned scholar 
born at Palkurike in the Godavari district. After 
defeating in controversy the Vaishnava sastris there, 
he moved to Kalleya in the Kanarese country, where, 
both in prose and verse, he praised Basava and the 
Virasaiva faith, and where ultimately he died. His 
date is fixed by the fact that he is praised by Somaraja 
(1222); and moreover, according to one account, he 



was the son of a disciple of Basava. A Telugu Basava- 
purdtia by him was used by Bhima-kavi in the prepara- 
tion of his Kanarese Basava-purana. His Kanarese 
writings include the ^aranu-basava-ragale (108 Kandas), 
the ^ila-sa7npadana (a list of the 64 virtues of Vira- 
saivas), Sadguru-ragale and Channabasava-stotrada- 
ragale. He is the subject of the Palknrike SomeSvara 
Purana by Virakta T5ntadarya (c. 1560). 

Somesvara-sataka. Some doubt exists as to the 
authorship of the SomeSvara-iataka^ a popular and 
widely-read cento of verses on moral subjects. It has 
by some been attributed to Palkurike Soma. But Mr. 
Narasimhacharya says that the work is so loose and 
faulty, in grammar and style, that it could scarcely have 
been written by one who, like that scholar, was acquaint- 
ed with Sanskrit. He also points out that Lihgayats 
themselves do not include it in the list of writings by 
Palkurike Soma. Besides which, the author never calls 
himself Palkurike Soma, but implies that he belonged 
to Puligere (Lakshmesvar). The date of Puligere 
Soma is not certainly known, but he may have belonged 
to this period. 

Stanzas from the SomeSvara I^ataka 

By Puligere Soma. A.D. 1200. {?) 

[As the refrain is capable of being construed in two 
ways, I have given different renderings of it in alternate 
verses. Hara and SomeSvara (or SomeSa) are names of 

Some facts from professors are learnt, 

And some by the gastras are taught ; 
Some lore is the fruit of observing, 

And some is arrived at by thought ; 
And converse with wise men gives insight ; 

And thus to ripe knowledge one's brought. 
Many drops coalescing make rivers ; 

From rivers the ocean is wrought. 
Be Hara, great Hara, adored — 
Some§vara, glorious Lord. (2) 

The sun like a jewel adorneth the sky, 
The moon like a jewel the night ; 


An heir is the cherished gem of the home, 

The gems of the lake are the lotuses bright : 
The sacrifice' crown is th' oblation of ghee, 

The crown of a wife is her sweet chastity ; 
And that which adorneth the court of a king 
Is the presence of poets, fit praises to sing. 
To thee, O SomeSa, I bow ; 
Death's mighty Destroyer art thou. (18) 

The moon, though It sometimes is slender, 

Will swell to full roundness again ; 
The seed of the banyan, though tender. 

May become greatest tree of the plain ; 
The puniest calf to a bullock will grow ; 

The green fruit will ripen in time ; 
And so, by the favour of heaven, 

The poorest to riches may climb. 
Be Hara, great Hara, adored — 
SomeSvara, glorious Lord. (45) 

What avails it to scrub at your skin, 

If within you are full of foul mire .-' 
Can the wicked man, clinging to sin, 

By bathing cleanse sinful desire ? 
Why, the crows and the buffaloes bathe : 

If to cleanse their beast nature — how vain ! 
Steep bitter nim fruit in sugar-cane juice : 

Yet it never will sweetness attain. 
To thee, O vSomeSa, I bow ; 
Death's mighty Destroyer art thou. (64) 

Who waters the forest unbounded ? 

On whose strength do the vast mountains rest ? 
And earth, air, fire, water and ether — 

Who but Thou dost with vigour invest ? 
Thou alone are upholder of all things that be ; 
And mortals are nought ; they subsist but in Thee. 
Be Hara, great Hara, adored^ 
SomeSvara, glorious Lord. (43) 

Two Romances. Two authors of this period call for 
mention as having written books of romance. 

Deva-kavi (c. 1200) wrote the Kusiimdvali in 
champu. Like the Lilavatl of Nemichandra, it is the 
story of a prince and a princess who fall in love with 
one another's portraits, and after many days' search 
meet and are wedded, 


Somaraja (1222), apparently a ruling prince, pro- 
bably of the Chauta rajas on the West Coast, who had 
embraced Lingayatism, wrote ^riiigara-rasa, called also 
Udbhata-kavya. Its hero, Udbhata, the ruler of Ger- 
soppa (Bhallataki-pura), slays a demon which had been 
hindering a rishi's sacrifice ; he then marries the daughter 
of a Chola king ; and in scorn of the thought of going 
unaccompanied to Kailasa, like another whom he sees, 
he lays a wager to take the entire population of the city 
with him thither. 


KINGS (1336-1600) 

In the time of the Vijayanagar kings who, during 
two and a half centuries exercised the chief sway in the 
Kanarese country, literature was being produced by the 
followers of three religions. The principal Jaina 
writers have already been mentioned. The Vaishnava 
writers will be noticed in a later chapter. An account 
will here be given of the Lihgayat writers only. To 
enumerate them all would require much more space 
than this little book can aflford. The chief writings may 
be classified under two heads — Stories of Virasaiva 
Reformers and Devotees, and Expositions of Lihgayat 

Stories of Virasaiva Reformers and Devotees. No 
religion can make way among the common people if its 
doctrines are stated only in abstract terms. They must 
be presented also in the form of biographies, as lived out 
in the actual experience of men. Therefore, as the 
Jainas wrote lives of the Tirthahkaras, the Lihgayats 
wrote lives of eminent §iva-bhaktas. 

The first work of importance, belonging to this class, 
was the Basava Purina, written in the sliatpadi metre 
by Bhima-kavi, an Aradhya Brahman of whose personal 
life little is known. The book was completed in 1369. 
It speedily became, and has since remained, a very 
popular book among Lihgayats. Among the authorities 
on which it is based is mentioned a Telugu work of the 
same name by Palkurike Soma. 

LINGAYAT writers 65 

It professes to tell the story of the life of Basava; 
who, however, is now represented as an incarnation of 
Nandi, Siva's inseparable vehicle, and as especially 
sent to re-establish the Virasaiva faith upon earth. 
The bulk of the book is taken up with the wonderful 
miracles Basava performed. The book is an interesting 
and typical illustration of the mythopoetic tendency, 
which shows itself more or less in all religions. The 
method seems to be this. First, a sectarian boast is 
made in highly hyperbolical terms — such as, that 
Basava' s word is so powerful that by it poison can be 
converted into ambrosia, the dead restored to life, 
irrational creatures enabled to confute learned men, 
mountains can be moved, the sun made to stand still in 
heaven, a tigress yield herself to be milked. Or else a 
teaching is recorded in metaphorical language — such 
as, that those of unclean castes and degrading pursuits 
are sanctified by the performance, however mechanically, 
of the powerful Saiva rites. And then, concrete stories 
are invented to justify each of these statements. This 
will give an idea of the kind of miracle {pavada) attri- 
buted freely to Basava. Finally, Basava is represented 
as being re-absorbed into the linga of the Siva temple 
at Sahgamesvara. 

"As a column of dust raised by the whirlwind arises from 
the earth, and is lost upon the earth again ; as froth is produced 
in mill< when it is churned, and subsides into milk again ; as the 
lightning flash is born of the sky, and recedes into the sky again ; 
as hailstones are produced by water, and melt into water again ; 
so Basava came forth from the Guru and ultimately was re- 
united with Him in everlasting rest." * 

Illustrative Extract from the Basava Purana, 
XI, 9-15. A.D. 1369 


Introductory Note. — Basava was in charge of king 
Bijjala's treasury. Just before the time for paying the army, a 

* An abridged English translation of the Basava Purana and 
Channabasava Purana, by Rev. G. Wiirth, will be found in the 
Journal of the Boynbay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for 


Jangama came along and asked him for the treasure. Where- 
upon the pious Basava gave him the whole. The king being 
informed by Basava's opponents, severely reprimanded him, and 
threatened him with instant dismissal. The poem then proceeds — 

But nought perturbed was Basava ; 
He calmly smiled and said : — 

" Untold, O king, the wealth of him 
Who worships ^iva great. 
His is the stone Chintamani 
Which finds him all he asks ; 
And his the Cow of Paradise, — 
The Kamadhenu famed ; 
The Kalpa-vriksha too is his, — 
Th' all-bounteous tree of Heaven ; 
E'en Meru's golden mount is his : 
No good thing can he lack. 
What folly then to think that such 
Can covet other's wealth ! 

Will bee that knows the lotus-bloom 
A thistle seek instead ? 
Will chakor bird, that has for food 
The moon's ambrosial rays, 
Exchange that heavenly banquet for 
The dark of moonless night ? 
Will cub of Indra's elephant 
Suck teat of village sow ? 

Will hafhsa-swan, that's free to drink 

Of the boundless Sea of Milk, 

Seek salt-sea water for its thirst ? 

O Bijjala, bethink I 

Or will tlie lion feed on herbs ? 

Will parrot throw away 

The mango's luscious fruit to eat 

Insipid jungle nut ? 

When these things hap, then may'st thou think 

The !^iva-bhakta too 

May cast his heaven-born treasure down 

To steal man's petty gold. 

Nay, let the earth reel 'neath our feet. 
Great Sesha's head sink down ; 
Quenclied be the raging fires of Hell, 
Splintered the mountain's crown ; 
Let moonlight lose its radiance soft ; 
The sun rise in the west. 
E'en then would he who Siva knows 
Not covet other's pelf. 


Does he whose inmost mind doth glow 

With heavenly radiance blest 

Need man's poor earthen lamp to shed 

For him its sickly gleam ? 

With thought of Para-Siva's name 

What sweetness can compare ? 

Endowed with all the wondrous power 

That Siva -knowledge gives, 

I have command of all I wish. 

Need I thy money, king ? 

Dismiss the doubts that hold thy mind, 

And this beside reflect — 

That gold was never thine at all ; 

'Twas Siva's — His alone. 

Mindful of this, I gladly gave 

It all to Siva Lord. 

Yet, mark, O king ! if by my deed 
Thou hast a farthing lost, 
I've failed to prove a bhakta true. 
Call for the chests and see." 

So the boxes were brought ; 
The contents were poured forth. 

Oh the wonder the courtiers saw ! 
Not a farthing was short ; 
The whole treasure was there ! 

'Twas most dazzling — that golden store. 
The king beamed with delight 
At the vision so bright, 

And honoured Lord Basava more. 

NoTK. — The above account of one of Basava's alleged 
miracles, or " signs," shows the ease with which a narrative of 
professed fact may have grown out of what at first was probably 
only ethical teaching. It also reveals the consciousness of the 
possession of valuable spiritual truth which doubtless formed an 
important part of the dynamic of the Lingayat Revival. 

Maha-Basava-raja-charitra is the name of another 
account of Basava's life, written about 1500 by Singi- 
raja, and sometimes called the Singi-raja-ptirana. It 
recounts eighty-eight marvellous deeds of Basava, and 
gives information about his opponents at Bijjala's 

Later works on the same subject, by Sha<^akshara- 
deva (1671) and Marulusiddha(c. 1700) will be mentioned 
in later chapters. 


To about the same period as Bhima-kavi belongs 
Padma7ianka, another Aradhya Brahman (c. 1385), 
a descendant of Kere-Padmarasa. He wrote the 
Padmar&ja-purAna, in which he extols the victory which 
his ancestor of 200 years before had won, when he 
confuted the advocates of other creeds, as related 
on p. 61. 

Prabhulihga, also called Allama-prabhu, is the hero 
of the Prabhulinga-lile. He was an associate of Basava, 
by whom he was made head of the Kalyana viatha 
(monastery). He is regarded in this book as an incar- 
nation of Ganapati, and it is related how Parvati, in 
order to test the steadfastness of his detachment from 
the world, incarnated a portion of herself in a princess 
of Banavase to tempt him. The author is Chamarasa, 
an Aradhya Brahman. He read his work at the court 
of Praudha Deva Ray a (1419-1446) who highly honoured 
him, and caused it to be translated into Telugu and 
Tamil. Chamarasa was a valiant champion of the 
Virasaivas, and held disputations with the Vaishnavas 
in the presence of the king. He was a rival of Kumara 
Vyasa, the author of the Kanarese Bharata, who had 
married his sister. 

More than a century later, in 1584, when the Vija- 
yanagar court was now at Penukonda, Virupaksha Pan- 
dita wrote the Ch^nna Basava Purana. Its hero, Channa- 
basava, is regarded as an incarnation of Siva. The 
work relates his birth, and his greatness at Kalyana ; 
but is mostly taken up with the instruction he gave to 
Siddharama of Sonnalige on the entire body of Vira- 
saiva lore — the creation, the wonderful deeds {llle) of 
Siva, the marvellous efficacy of Saiva rites, and stories 
of Saiva saints. It has consequently been very popular 
among Lingayat readers. It is also very useful to the 
historian of Kanarese literature, because it gives much 
help in determining the approximate dates of the early 
Virasaiva saints and poets. The book closes with a 
prophecy that Vira Vasanta Raya would come and rule 
the Kanarese country in 1584, and rebuild and beautify 
Kalyana. It thus identifies Vira Vasanta Raya with 



Vehkatapati Raya, who ascended the throne in that 

There are also lives ol Ach^ryas and Purdtanas. 

The most popular of the Acharyas was PanditAradhya. 
His story had been already told by Palkurike Soma 
both in Telugu and Kanarese, and by Guru-raja 
(c. 1430) in Sanskrit. It was now retold in Kanarese 
in the Aradhya-chai'itra of Nilakanthacharya of Ummatiir 
(c. 1485) and by Mallikarjuna-kavi (1593) in a com- 
mentary on Guru-raja's Sanskrit work. Revana Siddha, 
another Acharya, had his story told before, not only in 
Sanskrit, but also by Harisvara in Kanarese. It was 
now retold in Mallanna's Revayia-Siddheivara-kdvya 
(1413) and in Chaturmukha Bommarasa's Revana- 
Siddhesvara- Parana (c. 1500). The latter author was 
a disciple of a descendant of Revana. A later work, 
Chaturasya-piirayia (1698) gives the lives of all the 
Acharyas except Visvesvara. 

Concerning the purdtanas we have the following : 



Name of Work 


Bommarasa . . 

c. 1450 






63 puratanas 

Suranga-k a v i 

c. 1500 



(of Puligere) 

charitre (champu) 

Gubbi Mallan- 



Puratanas and 




Virupa-raja . . 








Basava-p u r a n a d a- 

Puratanas and 




Works expository of Virasaiva doctrine. Of the 

numerous works of this character only a selection can 

* Venkatapati Raya's father, Tirumala Raya, had done much 
to restore the prestige of the dynasty after the disastrous defeat 
of Talik(5ta and the fall of Vijayanagar. Among the many suc- 
cesses which he claims in inscriptions is the defeat of the Rattas, 
and he accordingly styles himself " Lord of Kalyanapura." This 
fact is probably the ground of the poet's hopeful forecast. But 
as a matter of fact, Kalyana remained in the territory of Bijapur 
until that State was annexed by the Mughal Emperor. The pro- 
phecy must be taken therefore as a piece of courtly flattery. 


here be named. For the most part, commentaries on 
Sanskrit works will not be mentioned at all. 

The reign of Praudha Dcva fiAya (1419-1446) seems 
to have been a time of much literary activity. Two of 
his ministers were zealous in the propagation of 
Lihgayat doctrine. One, named Lakkamia, wrote a 
treatise on the beliefs and religious rites of the sect, 
entitled Sivatattva-chbitiWiani, "Handbook of Saiva 
Doctrine." Another, named Jakkamlrya, not only 
himself wrote, or reproduced from the Sanskrit, a work 
entitled Nuroyidu-sthala (" Hundred and One Topics "), 
but spent large sums on the composition of Lingayat 
works by other scholars. The chief of these scholars 
were Kumara-bahka-natha and Mahalinga-deva. Both 
of them were eminent gurus of the time ; and both 
wrote Vachanas and books on the Shat-sthala. The 
former also wrote a Sivatattva-chintclmaTii. 

Guru Basava, another eminent guru, was the author 
of seven works, called the Sapta-kavya (or " Seven 
Classics "), all of which expounded religious teaching in 
the form of colloquys between a guru and his disciple. 
All are in shatpadi, except the Avadhilta-gtte, which 
consists of songs in praise of detachment. 

Mention is also frequently made of a hu?idred and 
07ie Virakias, or teaching Jangamas, who lived during 
the same king's time. Several of these wrote Vacha- 
nas and works on the Shat-sthala. The principal were 
Kalmatha Prabhudeva, who wrote in prose, and Kara- 
sthala Nagideva. 

There was great rivalry at the time between 
Lihgayats and Vaishnavas. Each in turn organised 
processions through the town in honour of the books 
of their respective faiths. Chamarasa and Kumara 
Vyasa, both mentioned elsewhere (pp. 68, 78), are 
especially noticed as rivals. This rivalry is further 
illustrated by the Praudha-rayacharitre of Adrisya 
(c. 1595), which consists of stories of Saiva saints, 
represented as told to this king by Jakkanarya in order 
to turn his mind from listening to the Bharata, and to 
convince him of the superiority of Lihgayatism. 


In the reign of Virupaksha (1467-1478) there lived 
a guru named Tontada Siddhesvara or Siddhalinga-yati 

who had a very large number of disciples and exercised 
a wide influence. He derived his proenomen Tontada 
("garden") from the circumstances that he long practis- 
ed Siva-yoga in a garden on the bank of the Nagini 
river near Kaggere. He was buried at Yediyui', near 
Kunigal, where a 7yiatha was built in memory of him, 
and where a temple in his honour still exists. All 
succeeding Lihgayat writers speak his praise. He 
wrote a prose work of 700 vachanas, entitled Shaisthala- 
jna7iamrita. One of his vachanas has been quoted 
above. Several of his disciples were authors of simi- 
lar works. His history is recorded in the SiddheSvara- 
purana by Virakta Tontadarya (c. 1560). 

Nijaguna-siva-yogi lived at some time between 1250 
and 1655. His date cannot at present be more accurate- 
ly given, but he falls somewhere within the period 
which we are considering. He was a great scholar and 
a prolific writer. He was the ruler of the country 
round Sambhulihga hill near Yelandur, and finally 
retired to that hill and lived there as a Siva-yogi. In all 
his works he extols Sambhulihga. He did not write, 
like the others, in shatpadi, but employed tripadi, 
sahgatya, ragale and prose. One work is a commen- 
tary on the Sanskrit ^iva-yoga-pradlpika, written especi- 
ally for the benefit of those ignorant of Sanskrit who 
desire emancipation. But his best know work is the 
Viveka-chi7iiama7ii, a very useful encyclopaedia of San- 
skrit terms and Virasaiva lore. 

Mallanirya of GubbI was a learned man who lived 
in the reign of Krishna-deva-raya (1509-1529) . He wrote 
both in Kanarese and Sanskrit. He is chiefly known 
by two works. His Bhava-chi7ita.rat7ia (1513^ is a 
reproduction in Kanarese shatpadi of a Tamil work by 
Jiiana-sambandhar (Pillai Naynar) of the seventh cen- 
tury. It is sometimes called the Satyeyidra-Chola-kathe, 
because it tells a story of the Chola king which was 
designed to illustrate the power of the panchaksharl. 
The same story was, at a later date, elaborated in the 


more famous Rajaiekhara of Shadakshara-deva (see 
p. 84). The other work, Vira^aivCLnirita (1530), also 
in shatpadi, gives a full statement of Lihgayat beliefs and 
traditions, supporting its teaching by quotations from 
the sacred books. It describes Siva's twenty-five liles{or 
"sports ") and gives stories of the puratanas and their 
successors. Like many other doctrinal works, it is put 
in the form of instruction given by a guru to his 

ViruPa-raja and Vlrabhadra-raja were two writers 
of princely lineage. The former has already been 
mentioned (p. 69). Virabhadra-raja was his son, and 
wrote five satakas on Virasaiva doctrine and morals. 

At the close of this period I will place a poet whose 
date is not yet decisively ascertained. This is Sarvajna- 
murtii the composer of the Sarvajna-padagahi, very 
popular verses in tripadi metre, embodying much 
shrewd wisdom, and frequently quoted by the common 
people. Sarvajiia is one of those poets whose artless 
and casual verses so express the better thoughts, which 
the common people feel but cannot express, that they 
have become the property and favourites of all, and are 
loved and quoted alike by ryot and tradesman and 
wandering mendicant. His real name was Pushpadatta. 
He tells us that he was the son of a Saiva Brahman of 
Masiir, in the Dharwar district, by a widow named Mali, 
whom his father met in a potter's house at Ambalur, 
while he was on his way home from a pilgrimage to 
Benares. About a thousand of his verses are current. 
Various collections of these have been made. Of the 
printed copies no two are exactly alike ; and these 
probably include a few verses which imitators have 
added later. The subjects, which are arranged under 
47 or 49 heads, are chiefly religion, morals and society ; 
but there are also verses on astrology, weather-lore, etc., 
and even riddles. Sarvajfia occupies much the same 
place in Kanarese literature that Vemana does in 
Telugu, and Nam-dev (fourteenth century ?) and Tuka 
Ram (d. 1649) do in Marathi. Like them he preached 
the vanity of idol-worship, the inefficiency of pil- 


grimages and of outward rites, and the need of sincerity 
in life. 

The following is the evidence as to his date : — (1) 
Collections of his verses have been found, written 
earlier than 1800 ; which proves that a verse in which 
he is made to foretell the fall of Seringapatam (1799), 
and probably another in which he speaks of that of 
Ikkeri (1763) are not authentic. (2) His use of the 
letter ra shows that he cannot have been later than 
1700 ; and the old Kanarese grammatical forms which 
he employs confirm this judgment. (3) One palm- 
leaf manuscript found by Mr. Narasiiiihacharya states 
that the collection was made by Sampadaneya Siddha- 
viracharya, who is known as a diligent compiler of 
Virasaiva verses and prose vacha7ias, and who lived some- 
where about 1600. This would place Sarvajha in the 
sixteenth century. Mr. Narasiiiihacharya, while stating 
these facts, places him about 1700. 

Verses by Sarvajna. (A.D. 1600?) 

Note. — The terseness of Sarvajna's verses can scarcely be 
reproduced in a Western language except at the cost of clearness. 
The following renderii gs only represent the sense. The poet 
appends his name to e-> ery stanza, much as an artist signs every 
sketch he makes. 


When light enters Pariah dwelling, is it also outcaste for that ? 

Oh, talk not of " high caste " and " outcaste." 

The man on whose homestead God's blessing doth shine 

Is surely a noble of lineage divine. Sarvajna. 

We all tread the same mother earth ; 

The water we drink is the same ; 

Our hearth-fires glow no distinction doth show ; 

Then whence cometh caste, in God's name ? Sarvajna. 


They say that Lord Vishnu once lived as a boar ; 

That Siva went begging from door to door ; 

The Brahma himself had his head cut away, 

Who was it that settled their destiny, pray ? Sarvajna. 



The foolish who bow to a wayside stone, 

And are not aware of the One God alone — 

These we should only for Pariahs own. SarvajSa. 


Why seek for The Good on a distant shore ? 

Look I meanwhile it grows at your own house door ! Sarvajna. 



Jayaiy-avishkritam Vishnor varaham kshobit-Hrnavani 
Dakshino7i?iaia-damshirdg7'a-viha?ita-bhuva7iam vapuh. 

"Supreme is the boar form of the resplendent Vishuti, which 
scattered the waters of the ocean and raised up the peaceful 
earth on the tip of his long right tusk." 

This couplet usually heads Vaishnava inscriptions. 


The Vaishnava Revival was a revolt against the 
unsatisfying character of the advaita teaching of 
Sahkaracharya. For three hundred years after Sahkara- 
charya's time, i.e. from 800-1100, his presentation of 
monism and his doctrine of illusion {mdya) had held the 
field of philosophic teaching and dominated the religious 
thought of the people, unchallenged from within 
Hinduism. But that system had reduced God to a pure 
abstraction, an unconscious entity, which could not 
satisfy man's craving for worship, sympathy and com- 
munion. The Vaishnava reformers strenuously con- 
tended against the interpretation put upon the 
Upanishads by the Illusionists {maya-vadls) , as they 
called Sahkara's followers. Accepting the same books 
as authorities, they gave them a new interpretation, 
and taught that the Supreme, the "One only without a 
second," was a deity with a personality — a Being to 
stir, and respond to, devotion, reverence and love. 

The two great Reformers who initiated the move- 
ment were Ramanujacharya, early in the twelfth 


century, and Madhvacharya,^ in the thirteenth century. 
Of these, the former, whose centre was at Srirahgam, 
was driven by persecution into the Kanarese country, 
where he converted the Ballal raja from Jainism, and 
established the important matha of Melkote. His works 
are in Sanskrit ; those of his followers chiefly in Tamil. 
The second was born and lived in the Kanarese country, 
with Udupi as his centre, and although he himself wrote 
in Sanskrit, he inspired many works in Kanarese. The 
followers of Ramanuja are called Sri Vaishnavas, and 
worship Vishnu exclusively ; the Madhvas worship 
Vishnu chiefly, but not to the exclusion of Siva. 

It is worthy of note that the revolt against the 
teaching of Sahkara was shared by Saivas also ; and the 
feeling that they had a common cause led, during the 
twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, to various 
attempts being made to reconcile the rival Vaishnava 
and Saiva creeds, by building temples to a combined 
deity, called Harihara or Sahkara-Narayana.' But the 
most important fact is that, whether the deity worship- 
ped was called Vishnu (Hari) or Siva (Hara) or Hari- 
hara, he was conceived of as personal, and not as 
abstract ; so that bhakti (ardent personal devotion) took 
the place of tapas (austerities, self-mortification) and of 
yogabhyasa (self-hypnotism). 

The personal Siva has been ardently worshipped in 
the Tamil country, but, speaking generally, has never 
called forth personal devotion to the same extent as the 
more human incarnations of Vishnu in Rama and Krishna. 
In North India, through the teaching of Ramananda, 
(fifteenth century) followed up by Kabir (1440-1518) and 

* Madhvacharya is sometimes by European writers confound- 
ed with Madhavacharya (tlie author of the Sarvadarsana 
Safigraha, the brother of Sayana, and minister of Bukka Raja in 
the fourteenth century). 

' Witness the Sankara-Narayana temple at Davangere, men- 
tioned in a grant of 1147 ; the temple to Harihara, erected 1223 
(hard by which the agrahara of Harihara was established in 
1418); and the name Harihara, borne by the first Vijayanagar 
king (1336-53), by others of his line, and by the poet Hari§vara 


Tulasi Das (1532-1623), the new cult of Rama rapidly 
spread, of the existence of which there is no clear 
evidence before about the eleventh century/ In South 
India, Ramanuja and Madhvacharya adhered to the 
already existing cult of Krishna, as he is represented 
in the Mahabharata, which (except in interpolated 
passages) makes no mention of the stories of Krishna's 
boyhood or of his sports with the gopis. This element, 
however, soon came in through the popularity of the 
Bhagavata Purana, which, in its original Sanskrit form, 
dates from about the ninth or tenth century. 

In addition to the reason already given, the Vaishnava 
Revival owed its success to its drawing freely from the 
rich stores of attractive legend contained in the Sanskrit 
Epics and the Bhagavata — to its extensive use of song 
and kirtan — to its large mahatmya literature — and 
also doubtless to the less austere character of its chief 


Early Vaishnava Works. Actually the earliest Vai- 
shnava writer of importance in Kanarese would seem 
to be Rudrabhatta, a Smarta Brahman, of the time of 
Vira Ballala (1172-1219), and author of the Jagannatha 
Vijaya, which reproduces in champu the narrative of 
the Vishnu Purana, from the birth of Kfish9a to his 
fight with Banasura. 

Another early writer was Narahari-tirtha of the 
U^upi matha, third in succession from Madhvacharya. 
In 1281 he wrote, in Kanarese, songs in praise of 
Vishnu. Before becoming a sannyasi, he had been an 
official in Ganjam, where two sasanas composed by him 
have been found. He is said to have died in 1333. 

It was not, however, tiU the period of the Vijayanagar 
kingdom and the reign of Krishna Raya (1509-29) that 

* See Sir R. G. Bhandarkar's Vaishnavism and ^aivism. 
Rama had indeed been recognised as an incarnation of Vislinu 
several centuries earlier ; but there is no evidence that separate 
temples had been erected in his name. But see also Dr. J. N. 
Farquhar's Religious Literature of India, pp. 189 f., 249 f. 



the Vaishnava movement made itself strongly felt in 
Kanarese literature. 

It is at this time, the sixteenth century, and especially 
in the poetry of the Vaishnavas, that a transition from 
Mediaeval to Modern Kanarese begins to take place. This 
shows itself in the following among other ways : — 
Many ancient verbs and nouns fall into disuse (perhaps 
because of their association with a different school of 
religious thought) . The letter ra begins to be used laxly 
in alliteration with other letters, and is finally dropped 
altogether. Verbs, nouns and suffixes hitherto having 
consonantal endings, now have the vowel 71 added to them 
to assist enunciation. The form of the present tense is 
changed, and a contingent future is newly introduced.^ 

Translations of Sanskrit Classics. Vaishnava Kana- 
rese literature consists very largely of reproductions, in 
various forms, of Sanskrit works. The progress of the 
Vaishnava movement was considerably helped in the 
early years of the sixteenth century by the publication 
in rapid succession of Kanarese shatpadi versions of 
its three great classics. 

The first to appear was the leading story of the 
Mahabharata, in which Krishna, identified with Vishnu, 
is the great hero. Of this, the first ten parvas had 
already been translated by Naranappa, a Brahman 
gauda or sanabhog of Kodivala in the Dharwar district, 
but better known by his nom-dc-phime, Kumara Vyasa. 
Lihgayat writers mention that he was a rival of Chama- 
rasa, the author of the Prab hu ling all le, and married his 
sister. He must, therefore, have lived in the reign of 
Praudha Deva Raya (1419-46). As his work is dedi- 
cated to the deity at Gadag, it is often called the Gadu- 
gina Bh^rata. The author, however, died before he 
could complete his task. The remaining parvas (from 
Santi onwards) were added about 1510 by Timmanna, 
who describes his work as blending with that of Kumara 
Vyasa, as the waters of the Jumna with those of the 

* Kittel's Kannada- English Dictionary (Preface), and his 
Grammar of the Kannada Language, 


Ganges. His work was entitled, after his royal patron, 
the Krishna-raya Bharata. 

The success of the Bharata led to a similar presen- 
tation of the story of the Ramayana, which was now 
given to Kanarese readers for the first time from the 
Brahmanical standpoint. The work was produced at 
Torave, in the Sholapur district, and is generally known 
as the Torave R^m^yana. The author calls himself 
Kumara Valmlki, after the author of the Sanskrit 
Ramayana ; but his real name was Narahari, His 
exact date is unknown ; but it is later than Kumara 
Vyasa, whom he mentions. Mr. Narasimhacharya 
places him about 1500 ; but no mention of him seems 
to have been found till the eighteenth century. 

The Bh^gavata Purina was the third great Vaish- 
nava classic reproduced in Kanarese about the same 
time. Its author was Chatu-Vitthala-natha, who appears 
to have lived at Vijayanagar in the time of Krishna 
Raya and Achyuta Raya. His date is about 1530. He 
also prepared a fuller rendering of the Pauloma and 
Astika parvas of the Mahabharata, which had only been 
briefly summarised by Kumara Vyasa. 

It will be observed that the three great Vaishnava 
classics were probably all completed during the reigns 
of Krishna Raya (1509-29) and Achyuta Raya (1530-42). 
This was a period in which the literatures of Kanarese 
and Telugu meet, both languages being equally patro- 
nised by these princes, who are said to have had eight 
celebrated poets at their court. Beside the Vaishnavas 
just mentioned, there were, among those who flourished 
at the same time, the Lihgayat MaUanarya, and the 
Jainas, Mangarasa and Abhinava Vadi Vidyananda. 

Popular Devotional Songs. The worship of Krishna 
was further popularised by short songs in ragale metres 
by Vaishnava dasas, or mendicant singers, who wandered 
from village to village. They received their inspiration 
from Madhvacharya, to whom they all express indebted- 
ness, and from Chaitanya, who, about 1510, visited all 
the chief shrines of South India, teaching men every- 
where to chant the name of Hari, and who died at Puri 


in 1533. A collection of 402 of these devotional songs 
in Kanarese was made by Rev. Dr. Moegling, who 
published 174 of them in Mangalore in 1853, and these 
have since been reprinted in Bangalore. They are 
known as the Dasara Padagalu. 

The earliest, most prolific and most famous of the 
singers was Purandara Dasa, who lived at Pandharpur, 
and visited Vijayanagar in the time of Achyuta Raya. 
It is said that as a young man he was rich and close- 
fisted ; but afterwards gave away his possessions, and 
lived as a mendicant, singing the praises of Vishnu in 
Pandharpur, where he died in 1564. All his songs end 
with the name Purandara Vitthala.^ 

A contemporary of his was of Kanaka D^sa, of Kaginele 
in the Dharwar district. He was of the beda (hunter) 
caste, or, as some say, a kuruba (shepherd). Like 
Purandara, he owed his change of life to Vyasa-raya, 
the head of the Madhva matha at Sosile, who himself 
composed lyrics in praise of Krishna. Beside hymns 
extolling Vishnu, Kanaka Dasa wrote, in sahgatya, the 
Mohajia-taraiigiyil ("River of Delight," consisting of 
Puranic stories chiefly about Krishna) ; and, in shatpadi, 
a Nala-charitre and a Hari-bhakti-sdra. This last, which 
treats of morals, devotion and renunciation (wf/z, bhakti, 
vairdgya), has long been in popular use as a book for 
children to learn. 

There exists a pretty little poem of fancy by Kanaka 
Dasa, entitled Rdma-d/ia?iya-charitre ("The Story of 
Rama's Chosen Grain"), in which he invents an ingenious, 
and characteristically religious, derivation for the word 
ragi, which is the name of the staple food of a great 
part of the Kanarese country. The poem says that, 
after the death of Ravana, Rama visited a hermitage, 
and enjoyed the food set before him by the ascetics. 
He then proposed for discussion the question — " Which 
of all the grains is most excellent ? " The claims of rice 
being disputed by another grain, known as naredalega 

* Vitthala and VitJiobd are corrupt Kanarese forms of Vishnu 
(Vitthu) with the affixes la and ba to denote tenderness or 
reverence, (Dr. Bhandarkar.) 


(" grey-head "), the gods came down to investigate the 
case. After hearing the arguments on both sides, 
Indra decided in favour of naredalega. Whereupon 
Rama conferred upon it his own royal name of rdghava ; 
whence its present name of rdgil^ 

The names of other singers are Vitthala Dasa, 
Vehkata Dasa, Vijaya Dasa, and Krishna Dasa, the last 
three all being of Udupi. Along with these may be 
mentioned Varaha Timmappa Dasa, who was only less 
prolific than Purandara Dasa and Kanaka Dasa ; but he 
lived two centuries later, in the time of Haidar Ali. 
When Sagar fell into the hands of Haidar, he fled to 
Tirupati, Contemporary with him was Madhva Dasa, 
of U^upi. 

The chief object of the poems is to extol Vishnu 
above all other gods, and exhort men to worship him. 
The gist of one of the songs is — "There is no god 
equal to Vishnu; no tirtha equal to the Saligram ; no 
book equal to the Bharata ; no life-force {chaita?iya) 
equal to Vayu ; no teaching equal to that of Madhva ; 
no caste equal to the Brahman caste." They record 
the exploits of Krishna and commend pilgrimages to 
his shrines. They also give expression to weariness of 
the world, the sense of sin and helplessness, a depre- 
ciation of outward rites and a yearning after purity and 
divine help ; and, warning men of the approach of 
death and the penalties of hell, call them to a religious 
life. Mr. Charles Gover, in his Folk Songs of Southern 
hidia, has given a free translation into English verse 
of twenty-eight of these songs. Of these I quote one 
by Purandara Dasa. 

* In y.^.^. 5., July, 1920, Mr. Havell gives reasons for identify- 
ing raji with the plant from which soma, the sacrificial drink of 
the original Aryan Brahmans, was made. If this can be sub- 
stantiated, it is of much interest. 


A Song in Praise of Vishnu 


My stock is not packed on the backs of strong kine ; 
Nor pressed into bags strongly fastened with twine. 
Wherever it goes it no taxes doth pay 
But still is most sweet, and brings profit, I say. 

Refrain: Oh buy sugar-candy, my candy so good, 

For those who have tasted say nought is so sweet 
As the honey-like name of the godlike Vishnu. 

It wastes not with time ; never gives a bad smell ; 
You've nothing to pay, though you take it right well ; 
White ants cannot eat the fine sugar with me ; 
The city resounds as its virtue men see. 

From market to market 'tis needless to run ; 
The shops know it not, the bazaar can have none. 
My candy, you see, is the name of Vishnu, 
So sweet to the tongue that gives praise as is due. 

Another work popularising the worship of Krishna 
was the Haj-i Bhakti Rasdyana (" Elixir of Devotion to 
Vishnu"), by Chidananda, of the eighteenth century.^ 

* There exists also a ^aiva (not Vira§aiva) Bhakti-rasdyana 
in shatpadi by Sahajananda, a Smarta, of the seventeenth 



During the seventeenth century the Vijayanagar 
Empire broke up into many small states, or palayagaris, 
each vassal chieftain declaring his independence. The 
Mysore State gradually absorbed many of these, and 
finally emerged as the dominant power in the southern 
part of the Kanarese country. 


In the seventeenth and early in the eighteenth 
century there were three writers who deserve especial 
mention, as each produced something eminent in its 
own department. They belong to each of the three 
chief faiths of the people— one a Jaina, another a 
Lingayat and the third a Vaishnava Brahman ; and they 
were all independent of royal patronage. 

The first was B hatidkalanka Deva, a disciple of the 
Jaina guru of the Haduvalli t)ia(ha, in South Kanara. 
He was an accomplished scholar in both Sanskrit and 
Kanarese and is said to have been learned in six 
languages. He is also said on many occasions to have 
defended the Jaina faith in public assemblies. In 1604 
he completed an exhaustive grammar of the Kanarese 
language in 592 Sanskrit stitras, accompanied with a 
gloss (vfitti) and a commentary (vyakhya) in the same 
language. The sutras or mnemonic lines alone would 
fill but a few pages, but the full commentary accompany- 
ing them expands the book to 50 times that bulk. The 
work is entitled KarnditaJia Sabd^nus^sanam. It is 
enriched with references to numerous previous authori- 


ties and quotations from leading Kanarese writers. 
The author earnestly vindicates the claim of Kanarese 
to receive as serious treatment as Sanskrit ; and says 
that his aim has been to bring the language to the 
notice of the learned, to promote its cultivation, and to 
help to elegance and precision in its use. Although 
the work is in Sanskrit, it deserves a place in any 
history of Kanarese literature, because it is the most 
important grammar of the language, being fuller than 
the Sabdamanidarpana or any other. ^ 

The second writer was Shadakshara Deva, a Linga- 
yat of Yelandur and head of a neighbouring matha. 
He is said to have shown poetic talent from the age of 
eleven. He composed poems both in Sanskrit and 
Kanarese. He wrote three works in Kanarese — viz. 
Rajaiekhara Vilasa (1657), VrishabhByidra Vijaya (1671) 
and Sahara ^aiikara Vildsa. The second of these is 
the story of Basava retold in champu. The third 
describes one of the llles of Siva. But it is his earliest 
work, the R^jasekhara, on which his fame chiefly rests. 
It divides with the Jaimhii Bharata the distinction of 
being the most highly esteemed poem in the language. 
It is written in champu of the best period. Although 
many metres are used, there is no shatpadi. The 
poem is an elaboration of the story told in the Bhava- 
cJmita-ratna (see p. 71). The following is an outline 
of the plot : 

RajaSekhara, the hero of the story, is the son of Satyendra 
Chola, niling at Dharmavati. He forms a very intimate friend- 
ship with Mitavachana, the son of the prime minister, who has 
been brought up with him. Together they conduct a victorious 
campaign against Ceylon, where RajaSekhara weds the king's 
daughter. Some time after his return to the capital, he receives 
a gift of two spirited horses from the Raja of Sindh, and proposes 
to his friend that they should ride them through the crowded 
town. Mitavachana earnestly tries to dissuade him, reminding 
him that any loss of life caused is punishable by death, and that 

* It has been published in Kanarese and Roman characters, 
and with English translation of the si:tras, by Mr. Lewis Rice in 
the Bibliotheca Carnatica (1890). A second edition is being pre- 
pared by Mr. Narasimhacharya. 


it is his father's boast that he will carry out the law impartially, 
however high the rank of the defaulter. RajaSekhara replies that 
he will take all the consequences upon himself. They set out, 
and Mitavachana, unable to control his horse, runs over and kills 
a boy. The bereaved mother appeals to the king. RajaSekhara 
admits that he alone is to blame, and is put to death. In grief 
thereat, Mitavachana kills himself ; whereupon his father and 
mother also commit suicide. RajaSekhara's mother, the queen, 
and his widow are both in the very act of doing the same, when 
^iva intervenes, raises to life all those who have died, commends 
Satyendra Chola for his unflinching consistency, and takes him to 
the joys of heaven. 

The third writer, LakshmlSa, a §ri-Vaishnava Brah- 
man of Devanur in Kadur taluk, is the author of the 
Jaimini Bhiirata, which is more famous than any other 
work of Kanarese literature, esteemed alike by learned 
and unlearned, and universally studied. Little is known 
of the poet, and his exact date is not yet determined. 
An initial date is given by the fact that he has imitated 
a number of verses from Virupaksha (1585). As the 
earliest reference yet found to him is by Lakshma-kavi 
(1724), and thenceforth he is frequently mentioned, it 
is probable that he lived in or about the close of the 
seventeenth century. Unlike the Jaina poets, he does not 
name his predecessors. His poem is written throughout 
in shatpadi, and is the best specimen of that style. It 
is a free rendering of a Sanskrit work which bears the 
name of Jaimini Bhdrata or Ah'a-Jaimi?ii, ascribed to 
the legendary sage Jaimini. The narrator of the story 
is Jaimini-muni, who tells it to Janamejaya. The sub- 
ject is the wanderings of the horse appointed for 
Yudhishthira's horse- sacrifice. It, therefore, corres- 
ponds to a portion of the Asvamedha Parva of the 
Mahabharata\ but it differs widely from the Sanskrit in 
details. The real motive of the poem is to extol 
Krishna. His greatness and the magical power of 
meditation on his name constitute the recurring theme 
throughout. The name of Krishna of Devapura occurs 
in the closing stanza of each chapter. The following is 
an outline of the story : 

A horse-sacrifice, it must be remembered, was in ancient 
times a proof of universal sovereignty. A horse had to be set free 


to roam for a year through neighbouring countries, and an army 
followed to overthrow any sovereign who dared to detain it. 
Yudhishthira, having overcome the Kauravas, determines to per- 
form such a sacrifice. Bhima is first sent to seize a horse from the 
neighbouring country of Bhadravati, whose king he defeats. He 
then visits Krishna at Dwaraka and brings him to Hastinavati. 
The horse is sent forth, bearing on its head a gold plate with a 
challenge to any king to detain it ; and is followed by Arjuna 
and an army and Krishna. It wanders in turn to Mahishmati, 
Champakapura, Stri Rajya (the Women's Realm, i.e. the Pandya 
and Malayalam countries), the Rakshasa country, Manipura 
(identified with a city in the south of the Mysore Province), 
Ratnapura, Saraswata, and Kuntala, and finally crossing an 
arm of the sea (probably the Ran of Kach), returns, via Sindh 
to Hastinapura, the vanquished kings following in its train. The 
geography is partly imaginary. 

The interest of the poem consists largely in its episodes, of 
which four may be mentioned : (1) In Champakapura the 
prince, Sudhanwa, is punished for delay in going to battle by 
being plunged into a caldron of boiling oil, but by meditation on 
Krishna he is able to remain in it, cool and uninjured. (2) At 
Manipura, the ruler is Babhru-vahana, a natural son of Arjuna 
himself ; and Arjuna is under a curse to be slain by his hand. He 
is accordingly slain and his head cut off, but by means of the 
stone sanjivaka and Krishna's blessing, he is restored to life. At 
this point the story is told at length of how Rama fought with his 
sons, Ku§a and Lava. (3) At Mayuradhvaja's court in Ratna- 
pura Krishna appears in the disguise of a mendicant Brahman, 
who says that a lion has seized his son and refuses to release him, 
unless it is given instead one half of the king's body. The queen 
and heir-apparent both ofifer their lives as ransom, but are 
rejected. On the king's preparing to give his life, Krishna reveals 
himself. (4) At Kuntala the story is told of the romantic early 
career of the king Chandrahasa, whose life was repeatedly plotted 
against by the previous king's minister, Dushtabuddhi, but the 
minister's schemes all turned against himself, and as the result 
of them Chandrahasa weds the minister's daughter and comes 
to the throne ; while the minister himself and his sou and his 
hired assassins all meet with their death. 

Extract from the Jaimini Bhdrata by LakshmiSa 
(XXX, 24-33). c. A.D. 1700 


Note. — Dushtabuddhi, prime minister of Kuntala, pays a 
visit to the tributary prince of Chandanavati. Before leaving he 
tells his daughter, Vishaye, that he will seek her a suitable hus- 
band ; and he leaves his son Madana as regent. Arrived at 


Chandanavati, he recognizes in Chandrahasa a prince of that 
place, the boy whom the Brahman astrologers had previously in- 
dicated as destined to become ruler of Kuntala, and whom he 
thought he had killed in infancy, having paid hired assassins to 
murder him. So he now resolves to compass his death by poison. 
Pretending friendship, he sends him with a letter to his son, 
Madana. Chandrahasa arrives in the outskirts of Kuntalapura, 
takes his meal in the royal garden, and falls asleep under a mango 
tree. Just then Vishaye has strayed from her companions to 
gather flowers ; and sees him asleep, and falls in love with him. 
From this point the poet proceeds as follows : 

Listen, O king ! While thus the maiden gazed, 

With heart enamoured, on that princely form. 

So beauteous in its youthful grace, and now 

So deep in slumber wrapt, her eyes discerned 

A palm-leaf scroll tied in his garment's hem, 

Which lay full loose outspread upon the ground. 

By sudden impulse moved, she forward stepped, and quick 

Drew forth the scroll. And theu, with wonderment. 

She found 'twas by her own dear father writ. 

Elate with joy, she opened it, and read — 

" His Excellency Dushtabuddhi, 
First Minister of Kuntala's fair realm. 
To Madana, his much beloved son, 
A father's blessing sends. No common man 
Is he who brings this note. 'Tis plainly shown 
That this same Chandrahasa shall become 
The sovereign lord of Kuntala. Bethink 
What promise this holds forth for me and mine. 
And how by us he should esteemed be.* 
Wherefore make no delay ; nor idly ask 
His birth or rank, his prowess or his fame. 
But forthwith give him vishava, displayed 
In such wise as to stir his heart's desire. 
So shalt thou bring a royal benefit 
To all our house. Farewell." 

— Now vishava 
Doth " poison " mean. And such the writer meant. 
But where is he can alter by one jot 

• In the original the ambiguity of the message depends on 
two possible ways of dividing niahahita ("great friend" or 
" great enemy ") and sarvathaniitra ("in all respects a friend " 
or "in all respects an enemy"), and on the two meanings of 
mohisu (" desire " or " fall in love with "). As it is impossible 
to reproduce these in English, I have tried to imitate the ambi- 
guity in another way. 


What Destiny hath on the forehead writ ? 

And so it was. That gentle maiden pure, 

Whose heart was full of tender hopes of love, 

Remembering oft what, ere her father went. 

He promised her, — that he a bridegroom fit 

Would find and send — saw here the promise kept, 

In such wise as should bring a royal benefit 

To all their house. Since this most princely youth 

Was marked by Fate to be the sovereign lord 

On Kuntala's wide realm, what need to ask 

His birth, his rank, or deeds already done. 

" My father writes to give him Vishaye. 

" 'Tis well. But by some mere mischance my name 

" Is wrongly writ. From this one letter's fault 

" Lest mischief fall, I will amend it straight." 

Upon the mango bark within her reach 

A gum exuding trickled down. This served 

For ink. And with the point of finger-nail 

For pen, she deftly scratched the palm-leaf scroll. 

And changed the va to ye. Then fastened swift 

The seal as 'twas before, and tied the note 

Once more within the garment's hem ; and turned 

To leave the place — yet treading soft, lest sound 

Of rustling feet and bangles should betray 

From whence she swiftly came. So she rejoined 

Her folk. 

But when they looked upon her face, 
They noted there a new-born light, as of 
Some happy secret found. They questioned her — 
" How now ? " they said, " where didst thou stray so long ? 
" And what doth please thee so ? " But she was coy, 
And would not tell. Whereat they laughing said — 
"Thy face is like a book that can be read. 
" As well might wand 'ring zephyr try to keep 
" The secret of the scented cinnamon grove 
" As thou to hide thy heart's new happiness. 
" Well, well ! Secrets will out ; and eftsoons we 
" Thy secret too shall know." 

She sweetly smiled. 
And strove by forced merriment to hide 
Hoxv fast her heart did leap ; — till evening fell. 
And to the town they bent returning steps. 

It was the Marriage Season of the year. 
The jocund sounds of wedding-songs and dance, 
Of tabret, drum and tinkling cymbal, filled 
The air ; and troops of joyous matrons passed, 


Busy with bridal rites. 'Twas such 
Auspicious sounds and sights did greet the path 
Of love-lorn Vishaye. The very gods 
Did smile upon her hopes. 


During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the 
patrons of Kanarese literature were chiefly the Rajas 
of Mysore, who had become independent from about 
1610. At the same time they began to withdraw from 
the Lingayat faith, and to adopt the worship of Vishnu. 
They also commenced to extend their narrow territory, 
and to build up a strong kingdom by absorbing the 
surrounding paleyagaris. 

Histories. Several of the books of the Mysore 
period belong to the department of History. This had 
hitherto been represented mostly by inscriptions, many 
of which were elaborate compositions in verse and 
prose by distinguished scholars. Now it took more 
and more the form of books. Among these may be 
named Kanthirava Narasa Rdja Charitra, by Nanja- 
kavi ; and Kanthirava Narasa Rdja Vijaya, by Govinda 
Vaidya, both dealing with that raja's reign (1638-59); 
Deva Raja Vijaya, a metrical history of the reign of 
Do^da Deva Raja (1659-72), by Channarya ; Chikka 
Deva Rdja Yaso-bhushana and Chikka Deva Rdja 
Vamsdvali (1672-1704), by Tirumalayengar ; and 
Maisuru Arasugala Purvdbhyzidaya, by Puttaiya (1713). 
This last was one of the chief authorities used by Wilks 
in his History of Mysore. The manuscript was fortu- 
nately saved from among many which Tipu Sultan 
had contemptously ordered, in 1796, to be taken for 
boiling the gram for the horses. In this connection 
mention may suitably be made of the Rajendra-7idme, 
or Chronicles of the Coorg Rajas, by Vira-rajendra, of 
Mercara (1808); of which there is an English transla- 
tion by Lieutenant Abercrombie (Mangalore). 

Chikka Deva Haya's reign (1672-1704) calls for 
especial mention in connection with Kanarese literature. 
He had spent his early life in Yelandur, and must have 


been in that town when the Rajaiekhara was written. 
He formed there an intimate friendship with a Jaina 
scholar, named Vishalaksha Pandit, who afterwards 
shared his captivity, when for 1.'^ years (1659-72) he 
was kept in confinement in an obscure fort by his uncle, 
the reigning prince, and who ultimately became his first 
prime minister. His after ministers also were great 
scholars and authors ; and doubtless these circumstances 
encouraged him in his patronage of literature. He 
caused a valuable library to be made of historical 
materials, including copies of the inscriptions in his 
dominions. Unfortunately, most of these were destroy- 
ed by Tipu. 

The raja himself is credited with the authorship of 
several books. Two of these are prose commentaries — 
on the Sanskrit Bhagavata, and on the later parvas 
(XII-XVIII) of the Mahabharata. Another, the Gita 
Gopala, consists of songs in praise of Krishna, with 
prose summaries. But the best known is the Chikka 
Deva Raja Binnapam (or " King's Petition"). This is 
a series of thirty verses on religious subjects, each fol- 
lowed by a prose amplification in the form of a prayer 
to Narayana. The prose is in Old Kanarese, and pro- 
fesses to give the gist of Visishtadvaita doctrine for the 
benefit of all, in accordance with Bhagavad-gita, ix, 32. 
All his works, however, make considerable mention of 
the author's territorial conquests. 

The raja was doubtless aided in the composition of 
his works by TirumalArya, or Tirumalayengar, who had 
grown up with him, and been his companion in study. 
He was a great favourite with his sovereign, and 
became, first, court poet, and then, minister. Beside 
the two histories already mentioned, he wrote a work 
on rhetoric, entitled Apratinia-vlra-charitra ("History 
of a Peerless Hero "), in which every illustrative stanza 
is in praise of his royal patron. 

Chikupddhy^ya, called also Lakshmipati, another 
minister, was a very prolific author, and wrote some 
thirty works in champu, sahgatya and prose. He 
appears to have been a very zealous propagator of the 


Vaishnava faith. Several of his works are translations 
from the Sanskrit, including two versions of the 
Vishmt Purana, one in champu, the other in prose. 
Three are from the Tamil, viz. Divya-suri-charitre, a 
history of the Twelve Alvars ; the Artha-panchaka, or 
"Five Truths," of Pillai Lokacharya, a principal 
Tehgalai authority, who is said to have lived in the 
thirteenth century ; and a commentary on the Tiru- 
vayi-mole of Nammalvar. Six are in praise of Rahga- 
natha of Seringapatam, the local form under which 
Vishnu is worshipped. Several are mdhatmyas, or 
commendations of Vaishnava sacred places. They 
treat of Kaiichi, Melkote, Tirupati, Srirahgam, Seringa- 
patam, and Gopalswami Hill (near Gundalpet) , Encour- 
aged by him, many works of the same character were 
written by others. 

SingarArya, another poet of Chikka Deva Raja's 
court, and brother of Tirumalarya, has the distinction 
of having written what, until recent years, was the only 
drama in Kanarese literature. It is entitled Mitravindd 
Govinda. It is a free rendering of the Sanskrit 
Ratnavali{'^ Pearl Necklace ") attributed to king Harsha- 
deva of Kanauj. In the original, it is a story of an 
amour between Udayana, king of Vatsa, and a maiden 
of the court, who is ultimately discovered to be the 
Princess Ratnavali of Ceylon, who had been shipwrecked 
on the coast. It is a mark of the strong Vaishnava 
enthusiasm of the time that, in the later work, Krishna 
is made the hero, instead of king Udayana. The 
heroine also is renamed Mitravinda ; and the names of 
the other characters have been correspondingly altered. 

Honnamvia, a Sudra woman, attendant on the queen, 
and called from her occupation " Saiichiya Honni," or 
" Honni of the betel bag," was a pupil of Singararya's. 
She showed literary talent, and wrote in sahgatya a 
a book entitled Hadibadeya-dharma ("the Duty of a 
Faithful Wife "), in which she cites illustrations from 
the Epics and Manu. 

The great literary activity of the Vaishnavas in the 
seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries is further 


evidenced by the number of fresh presentations of the 
Vaishnava classics which appeared at this time. 

The Bharata is represented by the Jaimiyii Bhdrata, 
by the Lakshma-kavi Bharata (c. 1728), and by a 
translation of the Bhagavad-glta by Nagarasa of 
Pandharpur, who gave a Kanarese rendering in 
shatpadi for each verse of the original. 

Vehkayarya, a Madhva Brahman, who was a Haridasa 
of Penukonda region, reproduced the story of Krishna 
as contained in the tenth chapter of the Bhagavata, in a 
work called Krishnalilabhyudaya. 

Then there were no less than three fresh versions 
of the Ramayana in whole or part. Tirumala-vaidya 
(c. 1650) completed the work of Kumara Valmiki by 
rendering into Kanarese the Uttara-kdnda, the only 
portion of Valmiki's Ramayana which the earlier poets 
had left untranslated. Timmarasa (c. 1650) translated 
the abridged version of the story of Rama, which forms 
an episode in the Forest Section of the Mahabharata, 
where it is told by Markandeya to Yudhishthira. He 
entitled it Markandeya Ramayana. Another rendering 
is the Anatida Ramayana by Timmarya, of Sadali near 
Anekal (c. 1708). Of him it is said that, although he 
was without scholarly education, a natural poetic gift 
showed itself in him from his fifteenth year ; and every 
morning he would pour forth his stanzas before his 
god, Timmaraya-swami, while a relative noted them 
down. This is probably typical of the way in which 
many Indian books have been written. The vaidika 
Brahman in his agrahara is a leisurely person ; and 
before or after his ablutions, when the body was 
fresh, the intellect clear, and the devotional feelings 
stimulated by worship, he would sit in the open air in 
a retired spot, and compose and chant his stanzas, 
and embellish them with the pictures of sunrise, 
sunset or other seasonal changes, with which they 

The latter half of the eighteenth century was not 
favourable to authorship, as the country was frequently 
overrun by alien armies, and the throne of Mysore was 


occupied by the Muhammadan rulers — Haidar Ali and 
Tipu Sultan. 


Although the Jainas had lost their former pre- 
dominant position, their continued zeal for their religion 
is shown by the fact that in 1603 the colossal statue of 
Gommatesvara at Yenur was sculptured. A re-anointing 
of the statue at Sravaija Belgola in 1612 is described by 
the poet Paiichabana of that town in his Blmjabali- 
charitre (1614). In 1646, the Karkala image also was 
re-dedicated. The history of this image and of Gommata 
is given by Chandrama of the Tuluva country in his 

Occasionally the Jainas were subject to persecution. 
The Telugu paleyagar Jagaddeva-raya of Channapatna 
even went so far as to suppress the worship of 
Gommata. Not long after, however, his dominions 
were annexed by Mysore ; and on appeal being made 
to the raja, and the antiquity of the worship proved by 
the numerous sasanas, the priests, who had retired to 
Gersoppa, were recalled, and the worship resumed. 
These facts are mentioned by Chidananda-kavi (c. 1680) 
in his Muni-vam^dbhyudaya, a genealogical account of 
the Jaina munis. 

In addition to these works, and to Bhattakalanka's 
great grammar (1604) already mentioned, the following 
Jaina works belong to the seventeenth century: — Bijjala- 
rdja-charitre, which gives the Jaina version of Basava's 
life at the Kalyana court ; Jina-mu7ii-tanaya, a cento on 
morals from the Jaina standpoint ; and Ra?nacka7idra- 
charitre, a new version of the Ramayana story, com- 
menced by Chandrasekhara (c. 1700) and completed by 
Padmanabha (1750). 

Our account of the Jaina literature in Kanarese may 
be closed with the mention of the Rajdvali-kathe, a 
prose summary of Jaina history and traditions, drawn 
up by Devachandra (1838) for a princess of the Mysore 
royal family. It has been of great assistance as a guide 
to the history of Jaina literature. The same scholar 



wrote a Ramakathavatara (prose) based on the Pampa 


In addition to the writings of Shadakshara-deva already 
mentioned, the following are the most noticeable Lihga- 
yat writers of the period under review : 

Basava-linga (1611) wrote ^ivadhikya-fiurajia, on 
the pre-eminence of Siva, and in it he incidentally 
justifies the reception of even the lowest classes into the 
Lingayat community. 

Siddha-naiijesa, a guru of Nandial(c. 1650), wrote the 
history of the poet Raghavahka ; and also the Guru- 
raja-charitre, or " History of the Great Gurus," which is 
a very useful account of the Virasaiva gurus, acharyas, 
saints and poets. It contains also an account of Siva's 
twenty-five liles. 

Kavi-Madanna (c. 1650) retold the story of Nannayya, 
a contemporary of Basava's, whose devotion is often 
referred to in Lingayat literature, on account of his 
having cut off his own head to do honour to his guru. 

Santa-linga-desika (1672), setting out to tell more 
fully in prose the stories briefly referred to in the 
Bhairave§vara-kavya of Kikkeri Nanjunda (c. 1550), 
enlarged his scope, and drawing tales from a wide circle 
of early writings, finally produced a collection of 81 tales 
and 618 vakyas. Apart from the tales, it is of consider- 
able value owing to the fact that it gives incidentally 
much information about Virasaiva writers and their 
works. It is entitled Bhairavesvara-kavyada-Kath/l- 
sutra-ratnakara ("Mine of Stories from the Bhaira- 
vesvara-kavya "). 

Lihgay atism received a severe blow when the Jangama 
priests were massacred and the Lingayat mathas des- 
troyed by Chikka Deva Raja, about 1680 ; and there 
appear to have been few Lingayat writers for some 
time after. But Marulu-siddha (c. 1700), in his admira- 
tion for Basava, made an enumeration in prose of the 
miracles wrought by him, in thought, word or deed, and 
entitled it "The Marvels {pavada) of Basava-raja/' 


They had now grown to be no less than 360. The 
BraJunottara-kayida, a favourite 6aiva work, also pro- 
bably belongs to this period. 


We have thus far spoken of Kanarese works on 
three religions, but have said nothing of works on the 
Advaita philosophy. This has been because all works 
on this subject had hitherto been in Sanskrit. In the 
seventeenth century, this form of religion also was 
brought within reach of the Kanarese reader by 
Ranganatha, called also Rangavadhiita. As he appears 
to have been a disciple of the author of the Bhakti- 
rasayana (c. 1650), his date is about 1675. At the 
opening of his work he thus justifies his use of the 
vernacular : 

Scorn not my words because I seek 

In common speech deep truths to speak. 

A glass may lack a Sanskrit name, 
Yet show one's features all the same. 

The way to bliss is hard to find 
When wrapped within a Sanskrit rind ; 

But, told in homely Kanarese, 
Is free for every man to seize. 

'Tis then like plantain's luscious pulp 

When stripped of intervening skin ; 
Or cocoanut which, broken, shows 

The rich sweet milk which lies within. 

If one's intent to gain release 

From bonds that bind the soul, 
What matters if he reach that goal 

By Sanskrit or by Kanarese ? 

The book is entitled Anubhav^mrita, or " Nectar of 
Fruition." It is written in shatpadi, and expounds the 
expression Tat twam asi ("'That art thou"), the 
doctrines of the Universal Soul (atman) and of Illusion 
(maya), the mode of attaining emancipation, and the 
worship of the Absolute (nirgunaradhane), and other 
matters. The work is still studied as a leading text-book 
of the Vedanta in Kanarese. On it is largely based 


another well-known work, the Jyiana-diidhii (" Ocean of 
Knowledge"), by Chidanandavadhuta (c. 1750). The 
epithet avadhtlta, which both writers bear, signifies that 
they claimed to have cast off all family and property ties. 


Collections of short stories form another branch of 
literature which, popular at all times, flourished in this 
period. Most of these collections are in prose, and 
have a very large reading public. They are generally 
from Sanskrit originals, and in one form or another are 
known all over India. The famous Brihat-katha, or 
" Great Story Book," of Guna(^hya was, as we have seen 
(pp. 28 and 38), rendered into Kanarese very early. 
Another such collection, based on the Bhairaveivara- 
kavya, has also been already mentioned (p. 94). 
Other very popular ones are the following : 

The Panchatantra. A champu version of this has 
already been mentioned as having been made by Durga- 
sirhha as early as 1145. The same stories, however, are 
found besides in more than one prose version in Kana- 
rese, the order of the tales varying somewhat in differ- 
ent recensions. 

This famoiis work corresponds in a general way to the Fables 
of Bidpay ov Pilpay, ma.d.e known in Europe through a transla- 
tion from the Arabic. Bidpay and Pilpay are indeed believed to 
be corruptions of the Sanskrit vidyapati, " learned man." The 
work relates how some unpromising princes were taught political 
science by a clever minister under the guise of stories and fables 
about animals. 

It receives its name from its " five chapters," which treat of as 
many conditions of political success. The first, Mitrabheda, " the 
Sowing of Dissension among allied enemies," is illustrated by the 
story of a lion and a bull, who were close friends until a jackal 
poisoned the mind of each against the other. The second, iT///ra- 
labha, or the "Acquisition of Allies," is illustrated by the tale of a 
tortoise, deer, crow and mouse, whose friendship proved useful 
to them all. Chapter iii, Kakoluklya, or the " War between the 
Crows and the Owls," illustrates the danger of alliance between 
those whose conflicting interests make them natural enemies. 
Chapter iv, Labda-pranasa, " The Loss of what has been Gained," 
enforces the warning that what has been acquired may again be 
lost, and that opportunities not utilised may never return. This 
is illustrated by several stories, the chief of which is about a 


monkey, which, having once escaped from the clutch of a crocodile, 
could not be caught a second time. Chapter v, Aparlkshita- 
karita, " Precipitate Action," teaches that actions done without 
due consideration may lead to disaster, as, e.g. when the owner 
of a mungoose, through not waiting to investigate, slew the 
faithful creature which had saved the life of his child. 

Battlsa-puttali-kathe, a collection of thirty-two stories 
about Vikramaditya, supposed to be told to Bhoja Raja 
by the thirty-two images which adorned the steps of his 

Betdla-fianchavimsati-kathe, which exists in three 
forms, champu, tripadi and prose. It tells how Vik- 
rama, of Ujjayini, in order to obtain certain magical 
powers, is directed to remove a corpse from a tree by 
night in perfect silence. On each of twenty-five 
attempts a vStala (a goblin or sprite) accosts him and 
tells him some story involving a knotty problem. His 
interest being aroused, he is led to speak, and so to fail 
of his object. 

Stika-saptati, seventy tales, related by a parrot to a 
married woman whose husband was away on his travels. 

HaMsa-vimiati-kathe, twenty tales by a swan. 

Kat/id-7naniari, and Katha-sangraha, tales, often 
with morals, from various sources, which include the 
Epics and Puranas. 

Ten7iala-ramakrishna7ia-kat he, ^jzoWeciion of laughable 
anecdotes of the court jester at Anegundi, in the time 
of Krishna Ray a, of Vijayanagar (1508-30). The king 
and his chief minister appear in many of the stories. 
It may be well to mention that Tennala Ramakrishna 
was not only a jester ; he was a scholarly Brahman 
who, under the name of Ramalihga, wrote several 
works in Telugu. 

A Specimen of Kanarese Humour 



When one day Tennala Ramakrishna had played on the king 
a practical joke of more than usual audacity, the king was so 
angered that he determined that the jester should die. He 


ordered that he be buried in the earth up to his neck, and trampl- 
ed to death by elephants. The bodyguard accordingly took 
Tennala Ramakrishna to the open plain outside the city, dug a 
pit, placed him in it, and shovelled the earth around him, leaving 
his head exposed. They then went off to fetch the royal 
elephants. While they were gone, a hunchbacked man came that 
way ; and seeing a man's head projecting from the ground, asked 
in astonishment how he had managed to get buried like that. 
Tennala Ramakrishna replied that for years he had suffered 
much from having a hunchback, and had spent his all on doctors, 
but none of them had been able to cure him ; that some one had 
suggested that if he got buried up to his neck in the ground, his 
back would straighten of itself. Being very anxious for relief, he 
had got his friends to bury him. What he now wanted was that 
some one should kindly dig him out. The hunchbacked man at 
once set to work and released him. Then Tennala Ramakrishna 
expressed great delight, and said, " See, I have lost my hunch- 
back, and am perfectly straight again ! Now yon get In, and lose 
j/c?7^r hunchback." So the man got in, and Tennala Ramakrishna 
filled in the earth : and then went his way and hid himself. When 
the bodyguard returned with the elephants, they were astonished 
to find buried in the ground a man other than the one they had 
put there. Having heard the man's story, they reported the 
matter to the king, who laughed so heartily at his jester's wit and 
ingenuity, that he forgot his anger, pardoned the offender and 
restored him to his office. 



With the nineteenth century begins an entirely 
new period of Kanarese literature, brought about by 
the influence of English rule in India, the impact of 
European civilisation, and the introduction of Western 
scientific methods of research and ideals of scholarship. 
The reorganisation of the education of the country on 
Western lines has largely increased the reading public, 
and extended the knowledge of and desire for literature, 
which now takes the form almost entirely of prose. 


The scope of this book, which treats rather of 
India's heritage from the past than of its productions 
in the present, as well as limitation of space, forbid 
any attempt to enumerate the authors and writers of 
this period. Their number has been very great, 
especially during the past fifty years. It will be 
sufficient to indicate the classes of works most character- 
istic of it, and to name a few examples. 

i. Educational and informational works have been 
produced in large numbers and of steadily increasing 
value. These have included works on linguistics, history, 
biography, mathematics, agriculture, hygiene, medicine, 
law and other subjects. Thus has been brought about 
the beginning of a scientific literature — all earlier works 
of quasi-scientific character being hopelessly out of date. 
Although works on astrology and omens are still much 
in demand, they will gradually yield to the advancing 
wave of exact science. 


ii. Tikas, or verbal paraphrases, of the chief 
Brahmanical poems of the past have been prepared in 
large numbers, to bring them within the understanding 
of students. This does not extend, however, to the old 
classical Jaina works, which are still very much neg- 
lected owing to their religious standpoint being out of 

iii. A class of books very largely in demand consist 
of stories from the Epics and Puranas, in a new literary 
form which sprang up in the eighteenth century, and is 
called Yaksha Gana. It is a sort of dramatic composi- 
tion suitable for recitation before rustic audiences by 
professional or amateur actors. The earliest example 
with which I am acquainted was by Madhva Dasa of 
Udupi. Santayya, a Brahman of Gersoppa, who became 
Principal Sadar Amin at Mangalore, wrote a large 
number of works in this style. 

Dramatic works of a higher order are now being 
produced — a department of literature in which only a 
single specimen (p. 91) has been found In earlier 
centuries. During the past thirty years, however, 
quite a considerable number have been published. The 
Epics, Puranas and Kavya literature supply an inex- 
haustible fund of material. Such stories as those of 
Sakuntala, Harischandra, Nala and Prahlada are favour- 
ite subjects. The RajaSekhara has been dramatised ; 
and several of Shakespeare's plays have been adapted. 
Among the earlier productions of this class may be 
mentioned the ^akjintala by Basavappa 6astri, court 
poet of Chamarajendra Wodeyar (1868-94) and the 
Tapatl Parinaya by Vehkatavaradacharya of Sargur. 
One of the most prolific dramatic authors has been 
Bellavi Narahari Sastri. Another is Sama Rau. But 
it is almost invidious to mention names. 

iv. Novels are becoming increasingly popular. 
Most of those hitherto published have been reproduc- 
tions from English or Bengali. Several of the plays 
of Shakespeare have been reproduced in this form, e.g. 
Bhranti Vilasa (Comedy of Errors); also such works as 
Sir Conan Doyle's detective stories of Sherlock Holmes. 


The Bengali novels of Babu Bankim Chandra 
Chattopadhyaya and of vSurendra Nath have been 
reproduced, chiefly by Mr. B. Vehkatacharya, a retired 
munsiff. The most esteemed of these are the Durgesa- 
7ia?idi7ii and Devlcha7idhi-rdni. 

V. Periodical literature, in the form of daily or 
weekly newspapers, and monthly magazines, are 
characteristic of this period. Some of these are 
prepared especially to meet the needs of female readers. 
Others are representative of Government departments 
{i.e. the Economic Journal) , or of particular classes in 
the community {i.e. the Vokkaligara Patrike) . The 
Vritta7ita Patrike, a weekly published at Mysore, has, I 
believe, the largest circulation of any newspaper. 

vi. All the various sects continue freely to produce 
works illustrative of their creeds and praising the deities 
of their choice. Many Brahmanical works, including a 
prose version of the Bhagavaia (entitled Krish7ia Raja 
Vanivildsa) were produced under the patronage of 
Krishna Raja Wodeyar III (1799-1868). Other works 
are of the Bhakti-sHra class, or are expositions of the 
Vedanta. Some are the utterances of the modern 
theistic movement, or are exhortations to morality. 
Special mention may be made of the Niti-manjari, 
by Mr. R. Narasimhacharya, which reproduces in ancient 
Kanarese poetic form portions of some of the striking 
moral treatises existing in Tamil, including the Knrral, 
of Tiruvalluvar ; the Mudarai and Nalvale, of Auvai ; 
the Ndladiydr, etc. 

Christianity has entered the field with versions of 
the Bible, Biblical Commentaries, books for the instruc- 
tion of the Indian Christian community in the history 
and teachings of Christianity, translations of such 
Christian classics as Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress 
{DSsdntriya Praydria or Ydtrika Sahchdra) , Augustine's 
Co7i{essions, etc., and lyrics for use in Christian worship. 

It deserves to be added that Kanarese is indebted to 
the missionaries probably for the introduction of printing, 
and certainly for the improvement of its typography by 
the preparation of fresh founts of beautiful type for the 


printing of successive editions of the Bible. Mission- 
aries have also led the way in the careful study of the 
language and literature. Witness the English-Carnataca, 
and Carnataca- English Dictionaries prepared by Rev. 
W. Reeve, of Bellary ; the scholarly Kamiada-Ryiglish 
Dictionai'y and historical Karmada Grammar, by Rev. 
F. Kittel ; the same scholar's editions of the Chhandom- 
buddhi and Sabdamanidarpa^ia ; and useful anthologies, 
grammars, etc., by Revs. Moegling, Weigle, Wiirth, 
and others. 

As a specimen of recent productions we have only 
space to quote the following : — 

Mysore Royal Anthem 

Refrain : Great Gauri, thou lotus-eyed goddess benign, 
Pour forth on our Raja thy blessings divine. 

Thou Lady celestial, of loveliest grace, 
Upholding all being — unbounded as space. 

As Indra the demons — Agastya the sea — 
Thou makest all powers of evil to flee. 

All good that men seek is, by thy hand outpoured, 
The Consort co-equal of Sambhu, thy Lord. 

O Chamundi, dark-visaged lady divine. 

Watch over Thy namesake of Chamendra's line. 

For our gracious and good Maharaja we pray. 
Oh cherish him, guide him, and guard him alway. 

Note. — The vocabulary of this anthem is almost entirely 
Sanskrit, though the forms are Kanarese. Chamundi is another 
name of Gauri. Her temple on Chamundi Hill looks down upon 
Mysore City. Like Krishna, she is represented as of dark-blue 
countenance. Chama, a modification of Sanskrit Syatna, means 
" dark-blue " or " black." The founder of the present dynasty, 
and father of the reigning Maharaja, bore the name of Chama 


It has already been mentioned in the Preface, that 
by the researches, especially of the German missionaries 
and of Mr. Lewis Rice and his coadjutor and successor 


in the Archaeological Department of the Mysore Govern- 
ment, the wealth of Kanarese literature has been made 
known, the chronological position of the chief writers 
determined, andalarge amount of information about them 
made accessible. An extensive collection of manuscript 
work has been assembled in the Oriental Library, 
established in Mysore. Some important works have 
been edited in the Biblioiheca Carriatica under the 
auspices of the Mysore Government, and others by 
private scholars, especially in two series, entitled 
Kavya-manjari and Kdvya-kaldnidhi , and are thus 
available for general study. Jaina works (but mostly 
Sanskrit with Kanarese tlkas or verbal commentaries) 
are being edited by B. Padmaraja Pandita, who also 
publishes a monthly journal, Jai?ia-tnata-p7-akasika, on 
Jaina subjects. Some Lihgayat works have been 
edited by Kari Basappa Sastri of Mysore, and others at 

In May, 1915, while the present little book has been 
under preparation, an Association has been formed at 
Bangalore, under the auspices of the Mysore Govern- 
ment, and named the " Kannada Sahitya Parishad," or 
" Kannada Academy." This association includes repre- 
sentatives from all parts of the Kanarese country. It 
has as its object not only the study of past literature 
and the encouragement of present writers of merit, but 
the cultivation and improvement of the language — e.g. 
by the unification of dialects, the fixing of scientific 
terminology, and the formation of a common literary 
style. These are matters of much importance, as the 
language is undergoing rapid changes, and is exposed 
to dangers which need to be held in check. It is 
evident that the bulk of the literature will henceforth 
be in prose instead of in verse, and that a vocabulary 
and style intelligible to all readers of ordinary education 
will more and more take the place of archaic words and 
forms. It behoves writers to see that in giving 
expression to the thoughts of a new age they do no 
violence to the genius of the language. Three examples 
will illustrate the dangers of a time like the present. 


1. During the brief period of Muhammadan rule in 
Mysore, Persian was made the language of the courts, 
and large numbers of Persian words and idioms were 
needlessly imported into Kanarese. Many of these 
still survive in Government notifications and legal 
documents, and form an object lesson of how Kanarese 
ought 7iot to be written. Again, at the present time, in 
the conversation of English-educated Kanarese persons, 
English expressions are being similarly imported whole- 
sale, without any attempt at naturalisation. These 
reappear in hurriedly written newspaper articles, and, 
being widely read, are apt to affect the style of public 
speech, and denationalise and deprave the language. 

2. One of the beauties of Kanarese is that all the 
pauses and intonations, which in English are represented 
by punctuation, are expressed by the vernacular idiom 
itself ; so that no well-constructed Kanarese sentence 
requires any marks of punctuation whatsoever. Never- 
theless, most modern Kanarese books are disfigured 
with all the cumbrous apparatus of Western commas, 
semicolons, inverted commas and marks of interrogation 
and exclamation. The result is, that there is growing 
up a slovenly mode of writing, in which the sense is no 
longer clear without these alien aids. 

3. Another evil tendency appears in books rendered 
from Western languages by incompetent translators. 
Complicated sentences are reproduced in facsimile, in 
which one adverbial clause is subordinate to another, and 
that to a third. Such a mode of expression is wholly 
foreign to Kanarese idiom and destructive to good 
writing — a native Kanarese sentence, however lengthy, 
being always simple in structure and pellucid in meaning. 

It is to be hoped that no encouragement will be 
given to the introduction of foreign idioms involving 
intricacy and obscurity ; but that Western languages 
will be utilised only to €?irich Kanarese literature (1) 
by fertilising it with new and noble thoughts, and (2) 
by lending it such additional vocabulary as is absolutely 
necessary to express the ideas that result from world- 
wide intercourse. 



It will be helpful to the English reader if we mention 
a few characteristics of Kanarese literature, some of 
which will be found to be characteristic of other Indian 
languages as well. 

1. It will be noticed that the interest of Kanarese 
writers is almost entirely religious. If we exclude 
grammatical and linguistic works, there is, until the 
nineteenth century, extremely little that is not connected 
with religion. The history is mostly sacred history or 
hagiology ; the works of imagination centre round 
puranic and mythological subjects ; and every book 
opens with a lengthy invocation of all the gods and saints 
of the author's sect. Secular history, except as 
represented by the records contained in sasanas on stone 
or copper, begins to appear only at a late period. 

2. The great bulk of the literature until the nine- 
teenth century had been in verse. The Jaina poets 
used a form of composition called champu, in which 
passages of prose were interspersed among the metrical 
stanzas ; but complete prose works have been compara- 
tively few until recent years, when they have become 
common enough. To read Kanarese books in the 
ordinary tone of speaking is to miss much of their 
beauty ; they are intended to be chanted. When thus 
chanted with correct phrasing and musical intonation, 
all the author's grace of alliteration, metaphor and 
metre are brought out, and the effect is highly pleasing. 
Even those who cannot follow the meaning will listen 
to such chanting with delight. 


3. Literary and poetic usage demands the use of 
archaic forms and words, as well as of Sanskrit terms 
for common things. Hence the ordinary Kanarese man 
is no more able to follow the meaning of the great poets 
than an ordinary Englishman is to understand an Anglo- 
Saxon book. The books are written for scholars, not 
for the man in the street. In indigenous schools it is a 
common practice for boys to repeat large portions of 
such books as the Jaimini Bhdrata without understand- 
ing in the least what it is all about. 

4. Indians have great admiration for the wit and 
ingenuity shown in what is called iUsha or double 
entendre ; and a writer's fame is much enhanced if his 
work abounds with stanzas which are capable of two or 
more meanings. This effect is facilitated by the fact 
that consecutive words are ordinarily run together, so 
that the letters are capable of being divided up in 
different ways. The Pandava- Raghaviya, a Sanskrit 
work of the sixteenth century, is written throughout 
on this principle, so that, divided up in one way, it tells 
the story of the Ramayaiia and divided up in another 
way, the story of the Mahabhdrata ! In English literature 
the practice of punning is confined to works which are 
semi-comic, such as some of the writings of Tom Hood. 

From the use of slesha and of archaic words and forms 
two results follow. The first is that the writings of the 
poets need to be elucidated by commentaries or tikas^ 
which give modern forms for ancient, and vernacular 
terms for Sanskrit, and which expound the double or 
treble meanings and the allusions to mythologic story. 
The other is that a Kanarese poem defies anything like 
literal translation into another language. To give any 
idea of the spirit of the original it would be necessary 
to paraphrase freely, to expand the terse and frequent 
metaphors into similes, and to give a double rendering 
of many stanzas. An example will make this clear. 
The opening stanza of the Jaimini Bharata is given in 
Sanderson's translation as follows : 

May the moon-face of Vishnu, of Devapura, always suffused 
with moonlight smile, full of delightful favour-ambrosial rays — at 


which the chakora-eye of Lakshmi is enraptured, the lotus-bud 
heart of the devout expands, and the sea of the world's pure 
happiness rises and overflows its bounds — give us joy. 

The following is an attempt, by means of a freer 
rendering, to retain something of the spirit of the 
original : 

When the full moon through heaven rides, 
Broad Ocean swells with all its tides ; 
The lotus blossom on the stream 
Opens to drink the silv'ry beam ; 
And far aloft with tranced gaze 
The chakor bird feeds on the rays. 

So, when great Vishnu's face is seen, — 
Whom men adore at Devapore — 
Like to the sea, the devotee 
Thrills with a tide of joy ; 
Like to the flower, that blissful hour 
The heart of the devout expands ; 
And Lakshmi Queen, with rapture keen, 
Watches with ever-radiant face 
For her great Consort's heavenly grace. 
O may that grace be ours I 

5. There is a number of stock metaphors, drawn 
from the lotus, the carpenter bee, the tide, etc., of 
which Indian writers seem never to weary, and of 
which use is made with infinite ingenuity in practically 
every Indian poem. Some of these do not correspond 
with the facts of natural history, but are mere poetic 
conventions ; such as that the chakora bird feeds only 
on the rays of the moon, that the lotus grows in rivers, 
that the Asoka tree has no fruit, and that the lily 
blooms only by night. ^ There is an interesting chapter 
on this subject in the Kavyavalokana of the twelfth 

6. One misses in India the poetry of pure human 
love, which forms so large and rich an element in the 

* Compare the popular, but erroneous, belief, current in 
Europe, that the ostrich hides its head in the sand to escape 
danger — an idea probably derived from some fable. Also the old 
Greek and Roman idea that the swan sings sweetly, especially 
when death approaches. 


literature of the West. This is partly due to the very 
inferior position accorded to woman ; but it is also 
largely due to the fact that marriages are arranged and 
consummated in very early life, so that neither men 
nor women ordinarily pass through that beautiful 
and romantic period of courtship, with all its mutual 
reverence, shyness and mystery, which is natural to 
full-grown unwedded youth. The practice of early 
marriage, it is true, safeguards youth from many serious 
dangers. But its unfortunate effect on literature is that 
the sweetheart is replaced by the courtesan ; and instead 
of the healthy sentiment of a pure love we have 
nauseous passages of erotic description, which disfigure a 
very large proportion of the poetical writings. Against 
this may perhaps be set touching examples of wifely 
fidelity, such as Sita, Damayanti and Savitri. 

7. I am afraid it must be confessed that Kanarese 
writers, highly skilful though they are in the manipula- 
tion of their language, and very pleasing to listen to in 
the original, have as yet contributed extremely little to 
the stock of the world's knowledge and inspiration. 
They excel in the grammatical study of their own 
language, and in description of the recurring phenomena 
of the seasons ; but there is little original and imperish- 
able thought on the questions of perennial interest to 
man. There are earnest calls to detachment from the 
world ; but this, after all, is only a negative virtue. High 
counsels of morality are given ; but they are too abstract ; 
they lack embodiment in genuine historical characters. 
The legendary illustrations offered are marred by unreal- 
ity, if not also by moral imperfection and faulty ideals. 
The writers are dominated by the depressing conception 
of life as either an endless and unprogressive round 
of transmigration or a quest of the tranquil dreamless 
sleep of nirvana. Hence a lack of that which stimulates 
hope and inspires to great enterprises. Moreover, their 
thought moves ever within the circle of Hindu mytho- 
logical ideas, and is not likely long to survive the passing 
of those ideas, which are now rapidly on the wane. 
Among their writers one looks in vain for any rousing 


moral preacher comparable to the prophets of Israel, 
to the great Greeks and Romans, or such modern writers 
as Ruskin, Tolstoi and Carlyle. As historic testimony 
to a phase of human thought the literature is valuable. 
But while there is abundant evidence of earnest spirits 
perplexed with the mystery of the universe and seeking 
to know THAT which lies at the back of what is seen 
and temporary, there is no such answer to these 
questions of the heart as to provide permanent solace 
and inspiration. But a new and vitalising force has 
now entered the land. The people are learning the 
new truth that they are children of a Heavenly Father, 
that life is an education for something better, that self- 
sacrificing service of the brotherhood of mankind is 
nobler than a selfish asceticism, and that righteousness 
and sympathy are the qualities that unite to God — the 
true path of yoga. And so, conscience is awaking as 
never before, new ideals of integrity and duty are 
beginning to inspire the mind of the people, and before 
them shines a star of immortal hope. 



From a very early period Kanarese writers have 
shown marked eminence in the department of Grammar 
and allied siabjects, such as Rhetoric and the Art of 
Poetry ; and this subject demands a chapter to itself. It 
will be convenient to give a connected account of the 
works of the chief grammarians, although their works 
extend over several centuries. Most of these scholars 
belonged to the Jaina community, to which Kanarese 
literature owes so great a debt. 

As early as. A.D. 600 Devanandi Piijyapada (see p. 
27), wrote a Sanskrit grammar known as Jainendra, 
which is quoted by Vopadeva (thirteenth century) as 
one of the eight original authorities on Sanskrit 
grammar. It is said to have received its name from the 
title, Jinendra, which Pujyapada bore. It has also the 
name of A^ieka-sislia Vyakarana (See Ind. Ant. X, 75). 

About 850 was published the Kavirajaviarga, a work 
on ornate composition and rhetoric, fully illustrated by 
examples, and evidencing a popular interest in the 
subject, and a high state of development in its study 
(see page 25). It is to a large extent dependent on the 
Kavyadarsa, "Mirror of Poesy," of Dapdin (sixth 

About 990 Nagavarma I wrote the Chhandovibudhi , or 
"Ocean of Prosody," which, with additions by later 
scholars, is still the standard book on the subject of 
Kanarese prosody. It is based on the similar Sanskrit 
work by Pihgala. In the account of the vritta metres, 
each verse is so composed as to be an example of the 
metre described in it. It has been edited by Dr. Kittel 


(Mangalore, 1875), who has added illustrations from 
various poets. Kittel's edition includes an account of 
shatpadi and other metres which were not invented 
till after Nagavarma's time, but a description of which 
had been added in later manuscripts. 

In the twelfth century (c. 1145), another grammarian 
of the same name, and hence known as Ndgavaj-vta II, 
wrote two notable grammars of the language, one in 
Kanarese verse, the other in Sanskrit sutras, which are 
the earliest known systematic treatises on the subject. 
The first is called §abda Smriti, and forms the first part 
of a larger work, entitled Knvyavalokana, or " Treatise 
on the Art of Poetry." This is the fuUest work in the 
language on the subject of poetical composition. Suc- 
cessive chapters treat of the Grammar of the language, 
Faults and Elegances in composition. Style, and Poetic 
Conventions. It is copiously illustrated with quotations 
from earlier writers, as well as with original stanzas. 
He followed it by a Sanskrit work, the Karnataka- 
bhasha-bhilshana, in which the grammatical rules are 
reduced to 269 sutras, or mnemonic formulae, each sutra 
being accompanied by a vritti, or explanatory gloss, also 
in Sanskrit. The edition by Mr. R. Narasimhacharya in 
\heBibliotIieca Carnatica includes a Kanarese commentary 
probably belonging to the seventeenth century. Naga- 
varma II also compiled a Sanskrit-Kanarese glossary, 
entitled Vasiu Kosa, which is the earliest work of its 
kind in Kanarese. It is composed in a variety of 
metres. Among other authorities, it quotes the Amara 

In the next century (c. 1260) Kesiraja wrote the 
Sabdamanidarpana, or "Jewel-mirror of Grammar," 
which remains till now the standard early authority on 
the Kanarese language. The rules are written in kanda 
metre, and are accompanied by a prose vritti, or 
illustrative commentary, provided by the author himself. 
It was edited by Dr. Kittel (Mangalore, 1872), along 
with a commentary of probably the seventeenth century. 
Of this grammar Dr. Burnell says {Ai7idra School of 
Grammariajis, pp. 8, 55): "The great and real merit 


of the Sabdamanidarpana is that it bases its rules on 
independent research and the usage of writers of repute. 
In this way it is far ahead of the Tamil and Telugu 
treatises, which are much occupied with vain scholastic 
disputation." As Mr. Lewis Rice justly says: "This 
encomium is equally applicable to other Kanarese 
grammars, which had not been made public in 1875, 
when BurneU wrote. Nothing is more striking than the 
wealth of quotation and illustration from previous authors 
which these grammatical writings contain, and this gives 
them a high scientific as well as historical value." 

In 1604 was published Bhattakalahka Deva's Kariia- 
taka Sabddnuidsana, a fuller and more exhaustive 
grammar in 592 Sanskrit siitras, accompanied with a 
gloss and commentary in the same language. See 
further, p. 83. Like his predecessors, he quotes numer- 
ous previous authors and Kanarese writers. 

Other works useful to the student of the language, 
and illustrating the continuous interest in this subject, 
may be tabulated in chronological order. The letter J 
after a name denotes that the writer was a Jaina, and L 
a Lihgayat. 

c. 1150. Udayadityalattkaram, by Udayaditya, a Chola 
prince, 72 stanzas on the art of poetry, largely 
based on Dandin's Kavyddarsa. 

c. 1235. Kabbigara-kava, by Andayya (J), a work written 
entirely without tatsamas. See p. 44. 

c. 1300. Amara-kosa-vydkhyana , a valuable Kanarese com- 
mentary on the Amara-kosa, by Nachiraja (J). 

c. 1350. Karndtaka-sabda-sdra , a prose dictionary of 1,416 
1398. Abhinava-nighantu, or "New Le.xicon," by Abhi- 
nava Mangaraja, based on the Vastu-kosa of 
Nagavarma II. It gives the Kanarese meanings 
of Sanskrit words. 

c. 1450. C/iaiurdsya-nighantu, hy Bommavasa (L); syno- 
nyms in 130 stanzas. 

c. 1500. Alddhavdlankdra, a translation of Dandin's Kdvyd- 
darsa, by Madhava, a chief of Hiriyur in Kuntala. 
,, Kavi-jihvd-bandhana , by Isvara Kavi; on prosody, 

rhetoric and other subjects. 

c. 1530. Kabbigara-kaipidi, or "Poets' Vade-mecum," by 
Lihga (L); a dictionary of synonyms in 99 
verses, intended to aid the understanding of the 


Saiva poets. He was minister to the Raya of 
1533. Kavya-sdra, a valuable anthology, by Abhinava 
Vadi Vidyananda (J). 
c. 1550. Rasa-ratnakara, by Salva (J); a complete treatise 

on dramatic composition. 
c. 1560. Karnataka-sabda-nianjari , a vocabulary of tad- 
bhava and Kanarese words ; by Totadarya (L). 
c. 1600. Karnatdka-sanjivana ( J) , a glossary of words spelt 
with ra and [a. 
,, Ndnd7'tha-ratndkara , a glossary of Sanskrit words 

having several meanings, by Devottama (J). 
,, Navarasdlankdrafhy T'lmma.; on rasa and rhetoric 
c. 1640. Kavi-ka?itha-hd7-a, " Poet's Necklace," a metrical 
repertory of synonym's, by Surya. 
1700. Apratima-vlra-charitra , by Tirumalayengar, min- 
ister of Chikkadeva Raya. 

It is needless to refer to the many good modern 
grammars prepared for use in schools. 



An account of English Literature would scarcely be 
complete without some mention of Newton's Principia 
and Bacon's Nomwi Orgaruim, although these were 
written in Latin. In like manner, many notable works 
have been written in the Kanarese country by Kanarese 
men, but in the Sanskrit language. It has already been 
stated that some of the early Jaina poets wrote in 
Sanskrit, e.g. Samantabhadra and Pujyapada Devanandi. 
Reference has also been made to various poets, such as 
Ponna (c. 950), Nagavarma II (1120), Palkurike Soma 
(c. 1195), and Sha^akshara Deva (1657), who were 
equally facile in Sanskrit and Kanarese, and some of 
whom bore the honorific title, ubiiaya-kavi, "Poets, 
both in Sanskrit and the vernacular." Mention has also 
been made of Bhattakalahka's Kanarese Grammar, 
written in Sanskrit (1604). A long list could doubtless 
be given of Sanskrit writers within the Kanarese area. 
The following are only a few of the more famous : 

In the ninth century ^ankarOchnrya, the great Advaiti 
philosopher, established his principal monastery at 
Sringeri, where some think he died. Some of his 
commentaries may have been written there. 

In 1085 BiUiana, a Kashmiri Brahman, who had 
settled at Kalyana, wrote the Vikramarkadeva-charitra, a 
Sanskrit poem recounting the adventures and prowess 
of his patron, the Chalukya king, Vikrama (1076-1127). 
At the same court lived Vijhaneivara, who there com- 
piled the Mitakshara, which remains to this day a 
standard work on Hindu Jurisprudence. It concludes 


with the words: "On the face of the earth there has 
not been, there is not, and there never will be, a city 
like Kalyana ; never was a monarch seen or heard of 
equal to the prosperous Vikramarka." 

In the thirteenth century Madhvachdrya^ called also 
Anandatirtha (1199-1278), founded the Dvaita school of 
the Vedanta. He lived and established his principal 
viatha at U^upi in the Kanarese country, where he wrote 
his commentaries. He exerted a powerful influence on 
Kanarese literature. 

Early in the fourteenth century, Vidyatirtha, guru 
of the Sringeri matha, was a great exponent of Sankara's 
philosophy ; and Jayatirtha, guru of the U<^upi matha, 
of Madhvacharya's. 

Mddhavachnrya, called also Vidyaranya, wrote the 
Sarva-dariana-sangraha, or " Compendium of all the 
Philosophical Systems," and many other works. He 
was purohita and first minister of Bukka Raya of 
Vijayanagar (1353-77). He succeeded Vidyatirtha as 
guru of the Sringeri matha. His own town was Hampe, 
where he died and where his tomb is still shown. 

His brother Sayana, who died 1387, was the most 
celebrated commentator on the Vedas. 

I believe that many of the gurus of the Sringeri, 
Melkote and Udupi mathas have been the authors of 
learned Sanskrit works. 


Exact dates are in thick type. Other dates are approximately 
correct ; but, if followed by a question mark, are more or less 

Rashtrakutas ruling at Manyakheta in N. Karnataka, 820-973. 

850 ' Kavirdjamarga. 

941 Adi Pampa's Bhdrata and Adi Picrana. 

950 Ponna's ^anti-purdna. 

Later Gangas ruling at Talkad in S. Karnataka, 900-1000. 

978 Chdvufida-rdya Purdna. 

990 Nagavarmal's Chhandombiiddhi. 

1000-1050 Cholas overrun S. Karnataka. 
Western Chalukyas ruling at Kalyana in N. Karnataka, 973-1156. 

993 Ranna's Ajita-purdna, etc. 

1085 Bilhana and Vijnanesvara. 

1145 Durgasimha's Panchatantra . 

Kalachuris ruling at Kalyana in N. Karnataka, 1156-1186. 
1160 Lingayat Revival under Basava and Channabasava. 

Hoysalas or Ballal Rajas ruling at Dorasamudra in S. Karnataka, 

1105 Nagachandra's Pampa Rdmdyana. 

,, Kanti (poetess) and Rajaditya (mathematician). 

1098 Ramanujacharya converts Hoysala Crown Prince to 

1112 Nayasena 's Dharmdmrita . 

1145 Nagavarma II 's Kdvydvalokanam and Bhdshd- 

1165 Harii§vara's Girijd-Kalydna. 

,, Raghavanka, earliest writer of Shatpadi. 

1170 Nemichandra's Lildvatl . 

1180 Rudrabhatta's Jaganndtha-vijaya . 

1195 Palkurike Soma. 

xii. cent. Transition from Ancient to Mediaeval Kanarese. 
1200 Devakavi's Kusiiindvali. 

1209, 1230 Janna's Yasodhara-charitre and Anantandtha- 

1232 Sangatya first used by SiSumayana. 

1235 Andayya's Kabhigara-Kdva. 

1245 Mallikarjuna's Sukti-sudhdrnava. 

1260 Kesiraja's ^abdamani-darpana. 

1275 Kutmidendu Rdmdyana. 

1280 Madhvacharya preaches Dvaita doctrine. 

,, The temples at Halebid and Java building. 


1310-1326 Muhammadan invasions overthrow South India 

The Vijayanagar Kingdom, 1336-1610. 

1350-1387 Madhavacharya and Sayana flourish. 

1369 Bhima-kavi's Basava-purdna. 

1385 Madhura's Dharviandtha-purana . 

,, Padmananka's Padmaraja-purdna. 

1419-46 Praudha Deva Raya's reign. 

Chamarasa's Prabhulihga-lile . 
Kumara-Vyasa's Gadiigina Bhdrata. 

1470 Tontada Siddhesvara. 

1500 Kumara-Valmiki's Torave Rdvidyana. 

,, Singi-raja's Mala-basava-rdja-charitre . 

1500(?) Nijaguna-yogi's Viveka-chijttdmani. 

1509-30 Krishna-deva-raya's reign. 
1510 Krishna-rdya Bhdrata. 

1513 Mallanarya's Bhdva-chintd-ratna. 

1530 Kannada Bhdgavata. 

„ Kabbigara-kaipidi. 

1533 Abhinava Vadi Vidyananda's Kdvya-sdra. 

1550 Sdlva- Bhdrata. 

,, Purandara-dasa and Kanaka-dasa. 

1557 Ratnakara-varni's Annagala-pada. 

1585 Channabasava-purdna. 

xvi. cent. Transition from Mediaeval to Modern Kanarese. 

1600 (?) Sarva jna-murti . 

1604 Bhattakalanka's Karndtaka Sabddnusdsana. 
Mysore Rajas become independent, and adopt Vaishnavism, 1610. 

1614 Panchabana's Bhtijabali-charitre . 

1646 Kdrkala-Gouiinatesvara-charitre. 

1650 Bijjala-rdya-charitre. 

,, Siddha-nanjesa's Guru-rdja-charitre . 

1657 Shadakshara-deva's A'a/a/^/^^ara Vildsa. 

1672 Santalifiga-desika's Stories from Bhairavesvara- 


1672-1704 Chikka Deva Raya's reign. 

Chikupadhyaya and Tirumalayengar. 

1675 Anubhavdmrita. 

1680 Mitravindd-Govinda. 

,, Massacre of Jangamas. 

xvii. cent. The letter ra falls out of use. 

1700 Lakshmisa's Jaimini Bhdrata. 

,, Chandra§ekhara's Rdmachandra-charitre . 

1708 Ananda Rdvidyana 

1728 Lakshnia-kavi Bhdrata. 

,, Krishna-lildbhyudaya. 

1 76 i -99 Haidar Ali and TTpu Sultan . 

1838 Devachandra's Rdjdvali-kathe. 


Rajas, 89 
Abhinava Mangaraja, 112 
Abhinava Nighantu, 112 
Abhinava Pampa, 34 
Abhinava Vadi Vidyananda, 

45_, 47, 79, 113, 117 
Abliar inscription, 55 
Achanna, 43 
Acharyas, The Five Li6gayat, 

54, 69, 94 
Achyuta Raya, ofVijayanagar, 

Adi Pampa, 30, 116 
Adi-purana, 30 
Adrisva, 70 
Advaita, 23, 34, 75, 95 
Aggala, 43 

Ahavamalla (Chalukya), 32 
Ajitd-purana, 32 
Akalavarsha (Rashtrakilta ) , 31 
Akkadian language, 11 
Allama-prabhu (Prabhulinga), 

Alliteration, 29 
Alwars, 91 

Amara-kosa (Sans.), 13, 111 
Amara-kosa-vyakhyana, 112 
Amara-simha, 36 
Amitagati, 37 
Ananda Ramayana, 92, 117 
Anandatirtha (Madhvacharya) , 

Ananiandtha-purana, 43, 116 
Anday\-a, 15, 44, 112, 116 
Aneka-sesha-vyakarana, 110 
Anga-sthala, 51 
Anjand-charitre , 44 
Annagala-padagahi , 47, 117 
Anubhavdmrita , 95, 117 
Aparajita-Sataka, 47 

Apratima-vira-charitra , 90, 113 
Arddhya-charitre , 69 
Arddha Nemi, 43 
ArikeSari (prince), 30, 31 
Artha-panchaka (Tamil), 91 
Aryabhata (Sans.), 33 
Ashtavaranam, 50 
Astrology, 43 
Aswa-jahnini (Sans.), 85 
ASvamedha-parva, 85 
Augustine's Confessions, 101 
Auvai (Tamil poetess) , 101 
Avadhuta-glte, 70 
Ayata-varma, 48 

DABU Bankim Chandra Chat- 
^ topadhyaya, 101 
Badaga language, 14 
Bagavadi, 52 f 

Bahubali (= Gommata), 19, 20 
Bahubali of Sringeri, 26 
Balipura (= Belgami), 33 
Ballal rajas, 30, 34, 36, 42, 55, 

60, 76, 116 
Bana (Sans.), 33, 49 
Banavase, 33, 43, 68 
Bandhuvarma, 43, 44 
Basavacharya, 24, 42, 52 flf, 57, 

65, 68, 94, 116 
Basava-linga, 94 
Basavappa Sastri, 100 
Basava-purdna, 50, 53, 55, 59, 

62, 64, 65, 117 

charitre, 69 
Battl sa-puttale-kathe , 97 
Bednur, 52 
Begiir inscription, 13 
Behistun inscription, 11 
Bellatur inscription, 13 


Bellavi Narahari Sastri, 100 
Beiiar, 61 

Betdla-panchavimsati-kathe , 97 
Bhadrabahu, 18 
Bhagavad-gita, 90, 92 
Bhagavata-purana, 77, 79, 90, 

92, 101, 117 
Bhairavesvara-kdvya , 94, 96, 

Bhakti-rasdyana, 82, 95 
Bhakti-sdra, 101 

Bhandarkar, Sir R. G., 23, 55, 

77, 80 
Bharata (emperor), 20 
Bhdrata, 35 f , 70, 81 ; Pampa, 

31 ; Gadagina, 78 ; Krishna- 

raya, 78 ; Salva, 47; Jairaini, 

85 ; Lakshma-kavi, 92 
Bharatesvara-charitre , 47 
Bharavi (Sans.), 28 
Bhaskara of Penukonda, 46 
Bhaskara (Telugu poet), 45 
Bhattakalanka-deva, 8, 28, 83, 

93V 112, 114, 117 
Bhava-chinta-ratna, 71, 84, 117 
Bhilsa(=: Vaidiga), 26 
Bhima river, 53 
Bhima-kavi, 64, 68, 117 
Bhrdnti-vilasa, 100 
Bhvicharas, 34 
Bhujabali-charitre , 93, 117 
Bible, 102 
Bibliotheca Carndtica, 84, 103, 

Bijjala Ray a, 52, 53, 55, 60 
BiJiala-Raya-charitre, 53, 93, 

Bilhana (Sans.), 114, 116 
Bitti-deva (Vishnuvardhana), 

Bommarasa, 46, 69, 112 
Brahma-Siva, 37 
Brahmi lipi, 14_ 
Brahmottara-kdnda, 95 
Brahui language, 11 
Biihler, Dr., 14 
Bukka Raya, 46, 76, 115 
Burnell, A. C, quoted, 14, 111 

r^ALD WELL'S Comparative 
^^ Grammar, 11 
Carnatic, 12 
Chaitanya, 16, 24, 79 
Chalukyas (Early), 17, 30 
Chalukyas (Western), 29, 32, 

33, 38,116 
Chamarajendra Wodeyar, 100, 

Chamarasa, 68, 70, 78, 117 
Champu, 16, 38, 59, 105 
Chamundi, 102 
Chandra-chuddmani-sataka, 34, 

Chandragupta, 18, 19 
Chandrahasa, 86 ff 
Chandrama, 93 

Chandraprabha-Purana , 43, 46 
Chandra-raja, 33 
Chandragekhara, 35, 93, 117 
Channabasava, 52, 54, 68, 116 
Channabasava-purana, 50, 51, 

53, 68, 117 

Channapatna, 93 
Channarya, 89 
Chaturdsya-nighantu, 112 
Chaturdsya-purdna, 69 
Chatu-Vitthala-natha, 79 
Chauta Rajas, 64 
Chavundaraya, 27, 32, 33 
Chdvundardya-Purdna, 32, 35, 

116 ■ _ 
Cheramanka (King), 69 
Chhandombuddhi, 33, 102 
Chidananda, 82 
Chidananda Avadhuta, 96 
Chikka Deva Raja Binnapam, 

Chikka Deva Rdja Yasobhus- 

hana, 89 
Chikka Deva Raya, 89, 91, 94, 

113, 117 
Chikka Deva Rdya Vamsdvali, 

Chikupadhyaya, 90, 117 
Chitaldrug, 52 

Cholas, 18, 24, 30, 33, 112, 116 
Chfiddmani, 27 



HANDIN (Sans.) 27, 28, 110, 

^ ii2 

Dasara-padagalu , 80 
Dasaratha-jdtaka, 36 
Davangere, 76 
Desdntriya-praydna, 101 
Devachandra, 24, 35, 93, 117 
Devlchandhu-rdnl , 101 
Devagiri, 60 
Deva-kavi,63, 116 
Devanandi (Pujyapada), 26, 

110, 114 
Devanur, 85 
Deva-rdja-vijaya, 89 
Devottama, 113 
Dharmdmrita , 35, 37, 116 
Dharmandtha-purdna^ 46, 117 
Dharma-parlkshe , 37 
Digambaras, 18, 21 
Dlkshd-bodhe, 61 
Divyasuri-charitrd, 91 
Dodda Deva Raja, 89 
Doddahundi inscription, 13 
Doddananka, 46 
Doddayya, 46 

Dorasamudra, 30, 36, 60, 61, 116 
Drama, 91, 100 
Dravidian languages, 11 
Durgasimha, 38, 96, 116 
Durgesa-nandinl , 101 
Durvinita, 28 
Dvaita, 115, 116 

*-^ Ekantada Ramayya, 55 
Ekorama, 54, 55 
Ekorami-tande, 54 
Epigraphia Carndtica, 13 
Epigraphia Indica, 55 
Ereyappa (Ganga king), 30 

pA HI AN, 26 

^ Farquhar,Dr. J. N., quoted, 

41, 50, 77 
Finnish Language, 11 

n ADUGINA Bhdrata,l%, 117 
^^ Gadd-yuddha, 32 
Ganga Kings, 13, 17, 24, 29, 32, 

Ganjam, 77 
Gautama Buddha, 20 
Gazetteer of Mysore, 6, 14 
Gersoppa, 47, 64, 93, 100 
Ghatachakra-vachana, 54 
Girijd-kalydna, 60, 116 
Gitd-Gopdla, 90 
Gommategvara, 19, 46, 93 
Gopalswami Hill, 91 
Gover, Chas., Folk Songs, 81 
Govinda Vaidya, 89 
Grammatical works, 110 f 
Gubbi, 69, 71 
Gujarat, 18, 24 
Gunadhya, 28, 38, 96 
Gunanandi, 28 
Gunavarma I, 30 
Gunavarma II, 43, 44 
Guru-basava, 70 
Gururaja, 69 
Gururdja-charitre , 94, 117 

HA D I B A D E Y A - 
D HARM A, 91 

Haidar, 81, 93 
Halebid, 30, 60, 116 
Hampe, 60, 61, 115 
Hmhsa-vhiisati-kathe , 97 
Hari-bhakti-rasdyana, 82 
Hari-bhakti-sdra, 80 
Harihara, of Vijayanagar, 46 
Harihara, the jjoet, 60 
Harihara (= Sahkara Nara- 

yana), 76 
Harihara-inahatva, 61 
Harischandra-kdvya , 60 
Harisvara, 55, 60, 61, 69, 76, 116 
Harivamsa, 20, 30 
Harshadeva, of Kanauj, 91 
Harsha-charita (Sans.), 49 
Havell, Mr. E_. B^, quoted, 81 
Hemachandracharya, 24 
Hiuen Tsang, 17, 26 
Honnamma, 91 
Hoys alas, 17, 30, 44, 116 
Hultzsch, Dr., 12 

jKKERI, 52,73 

^ Indian Antiquary , 55 


Indraraja (Rashtrakuta), 22 
Isvara-kavi, 112 

TACOBI, Prof. H., 23,36 

J Jagadekamalla (Chalukya), 

38 _ _ _ 

Jagad-deva-raya (paleyagar), 

Jagaddala Somanatha, 37 
Jaganndtha-vijaya, 11 , 116 
Jaimini Bhdrata, 84, 85, 92, 

106 f, 117 
Jaina Religion and Literature, 

17 ff 
yaz«^wrfra( Sanskrit Grammar), 

27, 110 
Jaina-mata-prakdsikcL, 103 
Jakkanarya, 70 
Jangamas, 49, 70, 94 
Janna, 43, 44, 116 
Java, 14, 116 
Jayabandhu, 28 
Jayasimha, 33 
Jayatirthacharya, 115 
Jinachandra-deva, 31 
Jindksharamdle , 32 
Jina-inuni-tanaya, 93 
Jinas (= Tirthankaras), 19 ff 
JIvandhara-raja, 46 
Jlva-saynbodhana, 44 
Jndna-bhdskara-charite, 47 
Jnana Sambandhar (Tamil), 71 
Jhdna-sdra, 34 
Jndna-sindhu, 96 
Journal of Royal Asiatic 

Society, 13, 65, 81 

112, 117 
Kabbigara-kdva, 15, 44, 112, 116 
Kabir, 76 
Kddainbari , 33 
Kadambas, 17, 43 
Kaggere, 71 

Kalacluiris, 17, 24, 52, 60, 116 
Kala-jnana, 56 
Kdla-jTidna-vachana , 54 
Kalidasa, 28 

Kalyana, 29, 52, 56, 68, 69, 114, 
115, 116 

Kamalabhava, 43 

Kamban (Tamil poet), 36 

Kanaka-dasa, 80, 117 

Kanarese Country, 12 

Kanarese Language, 11-16, 102- 

Kanarese, Idiom, 104; Ancient, 
Mediaeval, and Modern 
Forms, 14, 15 f, 59, 78, 116, 
117; Typography and Print- 
ing, 101, 104 

Kanarese Literature, Periods, 
15, 16 ; Present position and 
prospects, 102-104 ; Charac- 
teristics, 105-109 ; Modern 
study of, 8,9, 102, 103 

Kanchi, 18, 26, 91 

Kannada Sahitya Parishad 103 

Kanthlrava Narasa Raja Cha- 
riira, 89 

Kanthlrava Na rasa Raja 
Vijaya, 89 

Kanti (poetess), 36, 116 

Karahataka, 26 

Kari Basappa ^astri, 103 

Karkala, 19, 47, 93 

Kdrkala - Gotmnatesvara - cha- 
ritre,Q2,, 117 

Karnaparya, 37 

Karndtaka - bhdshd - bhushana, 
37', 111 

Karndtaka-kavi-charite , 8, 9, 
28, 33 

Karndtaka-Sabda-manjari , 1 13 

Karndtaka-§abddnusdsana, 83, 

Karndtaka-iabda-sdra, 112 

Karndtaka-sarijivana, 113 

Kathd-rnanjari, 97 

Kathd-sahgraha, 97 

Kathiawar, 18 

Kdvana-gella, 44 

Kavi-jihvd-bandhana, 112 

Kavi-kantha-hdra, 113 

Kavi-Madanna, 94 

Kavi-parameshthi, 26, 27 

Kavi-rdjamdrga, 12, 25, 29, 110, 

Kdvyddaria, 28, 110, 112 

Kdvya-kaldnidhi, 103 



Kdvya-manjari, 103 
Kavya-sara, 45, 47, 113, 117 
Kavyavalokana,'i7, 107, 111, 116 
Keladi Nayaks, 52 
Kereya Padmarasa, 55, 61, 68 
KeSiraja, 44, 45, 111, 116 
Khagendra-tnani-darpana , 45 
Khecharas, 34 
Kigga inscription, 13 
Kirdtdrjuniya (Sans.), 28 
Kittel, Rev. F., 7, 14, 78, 102, 

110, 111 
Kolhapur, 12, 43,49 
KoUipaka, 54 
KoteSvara, 46 
Krishna-dasa, 81 
Krishna-llldbhyudaya, 92, 117 
Krishna-raja (Rashtrakuta), 31 
Krishna-raj a-vdni-vildsa, 101 
Krishna Raja Wodeyar III , 101 
Krishna Raya ( of Vi jayanag ar ) , 

71, 79, 97, 117 
Krishna-rdya Bhdrata, 47, 79 
Kumara Bankanatha, 70 
Kumara Channabasava, 69 
Kumara Padmarasa, 61 
Kumarapala of Gujarat, 24 
Kumara Valmiki, 79, 92, 117 
Kumara Vyasa, 68, 70, 78, 79, 

Kumudendu Rdnidyana, 35, 45, 

59, 116 
Kunigal, 71 
Kuntala, 60, 86, 112 
Kurral (Tamil), 101 
Kusumdvali, 63, 116 

J A, 13 f, 59, 113 
V Lakkanna, 70 
Lakshma-kavi, 85 
Lakshma-kavi- Bhdrata, 92, 117 
Lakshmana-Raja (Silahara), 43 
LakshmeSvara (Puligere), 30, 

Lakshmlpati ( Chikupadhyaya) , 

LakshmiSa, 85, 117 
Lildvatl,^Z, 63, 116 
Linga(Bhava,Prana andlshta), 


Linga-sthala, 51 

Lingayat Religion, 49 ff, 94 

1V/TACD0NELL, Dr. A. A., 
^*^ quoted, 28 
Machikabbe, 22 
Machi-raja (Chalukya general ) , 

Madana-tilaka, 33, 37 
Madana-vijaya, 44 
Madhava of Hiriyur, 112 
Madhavacharya (Vidyaranya) , 

46, 76, 115, 117 
Mddhavdlahkdra , 112 
Madhura, 46, 117_ 
Madhvacharya(Anandatlrtha) , 

16, 24, 76, 77, 79, 115, 116 
Madhva-dasa, 81, 100 
Madiraja, 52 
Madivala Machayya, 54 
Madivdlayya-sdhgatya, 54 
Madura, 18 
Mahabalakavi, 43 
Mahdbhdrata, 35, 36, 37, 77, 78, 

79_,85, 90, 106 
Mahadevi-akka, 58 
Mahalinga-deva, 70 
Mahatmyas, 77, 91 
Mahendrantaka (Ganga king), 


daya, 89 
Malabasava-rdja-charitre , 67 . 

117 _ 
Malayalam, 14 
Maleyur, 24 
Malla, poet, 13 
Mallanarya, 69, 71, 79, 117 
Mallanna, 69 
Mallikarjuna, compiler of 

Sukti-sudhdrnava , 44, 47, 116 
Mallikarjuna (Panditaradhya), 

54, 69 
Mallikarjuna-kavi, 69 
Mallindtha-purdna , 34 
Manargoli inscription, 53 
Manchanna, 52 
Mangalore, 89, 100, 110, 111 
Mangaraja I, 45 
Mangarasa, 46, 79 


Manikka Vachaka (Tamil 

mystic), 51 
Mantra-gopya, 54 
Manyakheta, 17, 25, 29, 31, 116 
Marathi, 15, 60, 72 
Mdrkandeya Rdniayana, 92 
Marula-siddha (poet)', 67, 94 
Marula-siddha (acharya),54 
Mathematics, 36, 99 
Maya-vadis, 75 
Mitakshara (Sans.), 114 
Mitravinda Govinda, 91, 117 
Moegling, Dr., 80, 102 
Mohana-tarahgini , 80 
Alrichchakatikd (Sans.), 30 
Mudabidire, 47 
Mridarai (Tamil) 
Muni-suvrata(Tirthankara), 20 
Muni-vanis dbhyudaya , 93 
Mysore Rajas, 83, 89 
Mysore Royal Anthem, 102 

^^ Nachiraja, 112 
Nagachandra, 34, 36, 116 
Nagalambike, 52 
Nagdnanda (Sans.), 34 
Naga-kumara, 46 
Nagaraja, 35, 45 
Nagarasa, 92 
Nagarjuna, 28 

Nagavarma I, 7, 33, 43, 110, 116 
Nagavarma II, 37, 111, 112, 

114, 116 _ 
Nagavarmacharya, 33 
Nagideva (of Karasthala), 70 
Nagini river, 71 
Nala-charitre, 80 
Ndladiydr (Tamil), 101 
Nalvale (Tamil), 101 
Nambiyanna, 60, 69 
Nam-dev (Marathi), 72 
Nammalvar (Tamil), 91 
Ndndrtha-rattidkara, 113 
Nanja-kavi, 89 
Nanjunda (of Kikkeri), 94 
Nannayya, 94 
Narahari-tirtha, 77 
Naranappa (Kumara Valmiki), 

78 ■ 

Narasimha (Ballal) I, 55, 60, 

Narasimhacharya, R., 6, 30, 32, 

55, 73, 79, 8_4, 111 
Narasimhacharya, S. G., 6 
Naredalega (= ragi), 80, 81 
Navarasdlankdra , 113 
Nayaks of Keladi (Bedniir), 52 
Nayasena, 35, 37, 116 
Nemanna, 47 

Nemichandra, 27, 43, 63, 116 
Neiiii-jinesa-purdna, 46 
Neminatha (Tirtliankara), 20, 

Nemindtha-purdna, 30, 37, 43, 

Nijaguna-Sivayogi, 69, 71 
Nilakanthacharya, 69 
Niti-nianjari, 101 
Nripatuhga (Rashtrakiata), 25 
Nuggehaili, 113 
Nurondu-sthala, 70 
Niitana-puratanas, 51 

*■ Padma-charitrd, 36, 44 
Padmanahka, 68, 117 
Padmaraja Pandita, 103 
Padniardja-purdna, 59, 61, 68, 

Paleyagars, 89, 93 
Palkurike Soma, 53, 61, 62, 64, 

69, 114 

Pampa (Adi), 30 
Pampa (Abhinava), 34 
PcDiipa Bhdrata, 31 
Pampa Rdmdyana, 34, 45, 116 
Pampd-satakam, 60 
Panchabana, 93, 117 
Panchakshara, 51, 61, 71 
Panchatantra, 38, 96, 116 
Pdiidava-Rdghavlya, 106 
Pandharpur, 80, 92 
Panditaradhya (Mallikarjuna), 

54; 69 
Pandyan Kings, 18 
Panini, 27, 36 
Pdnini-sabddvatdra, 27 



ParSvanatha, 20 
Pdrsvandtha-pnrdna, 43 
Par§va-pandita, 43, 44 
Pataliputra, 26 
Patanjali, 37 
Pattadakal, 33 
Paumachariya, 36 
Pavadas of Basava, 53, 65, 67, 94 
Penukonda, 68, 92 
Periya-purana (Tamil), 51 
Persian words, 104 
Pillai Lokacharya (Tamil), 91 
Piiiai Naynar (Tamil), 71 
Pingala (Sans.), 110 
Ponna, 31, 114, 116 
Prabhudeva, 54 
Prabhulinga, 68 
Prab/mlinga-llle, 68, 78, 117 
Praudha Deva Raya II, 68, 70, 

78, 117 
Praudha-rdya-charitre , 70 
POjyapada, 26, 41, 45, 110, 114 
Puligere (LakshmeSvar), 24, 

29, 30, 60, 62, 69 
Puligere Soma, 62 
Punctuation, 104 
Punydsrava, 35, 45 
Puranas (Jaina), 42, 43, 46 
Puranas (Vaishnava), 79, 91 
Purandara-dasa,'80, 81, 117 
Purandara Vitthala, 80 
Puratanas, 51, '60, 69 
Purdtanara-tripadi , 69 
Pushpadatita-purdna , 43 
Pushpadatta, 72 
Puttaiya, 89 

DA, 13, 14, 78, 113, 117 
,. Rachamalla IV (Ganga 

king), 32, 33 
Ragale, 16, 59 
Raghava, 81 

Raghavanka, 55, 59, 61, 94, 116 
Rdghavdnka-charitre , 61 
Raghunatha Rau, R., quoted, 

Ragi, 80,81 
Rajaditya, 36, 116 
Rdjasekhara-vildsa, 72, 84, 90, 


Rdjdvali-kathe, 25, 93, 117 
Rdja-yoga-vachana, 54 
Rajendra-chola, 24 
Rdjendra-tidnie , 89 
Rakkasa Ganga, 33 
Rdniachandra-charitra , 35, 93, 


Rama-dhdnya-charitre , 80 
Rdrna-kathdvatdra, 35, 94 
Ramananda, 76 
Ramanujacharya, 42, 75, 76, 77, 

Ramayana, 35 f, 92; Pampa, 

34; Kumudendu, 45; Torave, 

79; Markandeya, 92; Ananda, 

92 ; Ramachandra-charitre, 

Rdyn-charit-indnas (Hindi), 36 
Ranganatha (Avadhilta), 95 
Ranna, 30, 32, 116 
Rasa-ratndkara , 113 
Rashtrakutas (Rattas), 17, 29, 

Ratna-Karandaka, 48 
Ratnakara-varni, 47, 117 
Ratndvali (Sans.), 91 
Ratta-kavi, 45 
Ratta-mata, Ratta-sutra, 45 
Ravishena (Sans.), 44 
Reeve, W., Dictionaries, 102 
Renuka (Revana), 54 
Revana-siddha (Acharya), 54 
Revana-siddhesvara-kdvya , 69 
Revana-siddhesvara-purdna, 69 
Rice, Lewis, 5, 6, 84, 102, 'll2 
Rishabha (1st Tirthankara), 

Rudrabhatta, 77, 116 

^ VI LAS A, 84 

Sabda-manidarpana, 44, 45, 84, 

102, 111' 116 
Sabda-sniriti , 111 
Sabddvatdra, 28 
Sddali, 92 
Sadguru-ragale , 62 
Sahajananda, 82 


Sahasa-Bhivia-vijaya, 32 
Saivas (four classes), 49 
^aivaganias, 49 
^aivism, 26, 49 fif, 76 
^akuntald, 100 
Saligram, 81 
^alivahana, 38 
Sallekhana, 21 f, 26 
Salva, 47, 113 
Sdlva Bharata, 47 
Samantabhadra, 26, 41, 114 
SamaRan, D., 100 
Samaya-partkshe, 37 
^ambhulinga hill, 71 
Sampadaneya Siddhavira- 

charya, 73 
Sananda-charitre, 61 
Sanderson, Rev. Geo., quoted, 

SangameSvara, 52 f, 65 
Sangatya, 44, 59, 80, 90, 116 
^ankaracharya, 24, 75, 76, 114 
Sankara-Narayana, 76 
Sanskrit, language, 13, 15, 26 ; 

authors referred to, 27, 28, 33, 

34, 36,49,50, 110, 112, 114 f 
Sanskrit works reproduced in 

Kanarese, 33, 38, 43, 69, 70, 

71, 85, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 100, 

101, 112 
Sanskrit works by Kanarese 

writers, 26, 27, 28, 38, 71, 83, 
^ 84, 111, 112, 114, 115 
Santala-devi, 22 
^anta-linga-de§ika, 94, 117 
Santayya, 100 
Santhars, 21 
gantikirti, 46 
^antinatha (SantiSvara), 20, 

39 f 
Santindtha-purdna, 46 
^dnti-purdna, 31 
$dnti svara-purdna , 43 
Sapta-kdvya, 70 
^arami-Basava-ragale , 62 
Sarva - darsana ■ sahgraha, 76, 

Sarvaina-murti, 72 f, 117 

Sarvajtiana-padagabi, 72 f 

Sasanas, 38, 43 

Sataka (a cento or poem of 

100-108 stanzas), 34, 47, 60, 

^atavahana, 38 
Satyendra Chola, 84 
Satyendra-Chola-kathe , 71 
Saundatti Rajas, 44 
Sayana,"76, 115, 117 
Seringapatam, 73, 91 
Shadakshara, 51 
Shadakshara-deva, 67, 72, 84, 

114, 117 
Shakespeare, 100 
Shatpadi, 16, 59, 61, 111, 116 
Shatsthala, 50, 70 
Shatsthala-jndndmrita , 7 1 
Shatsthala-vachana , 53, 57 
Siddhalihga-yati (Ton t a da 

SiddheSvara), 71 
Siddha-nanjeSa, 61, 94, 117 
Siddharama, 54, 55, 61, 68 
Siddhardmn-purana , 54, 60 
Siddhesvara-purdna, 71 
Silaharas (of Kolhapur), 43 
^ila-sanipddana, 62 
Singararya, 91 
Singi-raja, 67, 117 
Sihgi-rdja-purdna, 67 
Siragunda inscription, 13 
^igumayana, 44, 116 
^ivddhikya-purdna, 94 
^iva-ganada-ragale, 60 
^iva-gltd, 50 
^ivakoti (of Kanchi), 26 
Siva-tattva-chintdniani , 70 
^iva-yoga-pradlpike, 71 
^lesha, 106 
Sohagina-suggi, 44 
Soma (plant), 81 
Sotnandtha-charitre , 60 
Somanatha (Jagaddala), 37 
Somaraja, 64 
Somayya (of Puligere) , 60 ; cf. 

Somesvara-iataka , 62 
Sonnalige, 54 61, 68 



Sravana Belgola, 9, 13, 18, 22, 

46, 93 
Sringara-rasa, 64 
Sridharacharya, 33 
^ringeri, 114, 115 
Srirangam, 76, 91 
Sri Vaishnavas, 76 
^rivarddhadeva, 27 
^rivijaya, 25, 28 

Stevenson, Mrs., quoted, 19, 24 
Sthala, 49 
Subandhu, 43 
^udraka, 30 
Suka-saptati, 97 
Sukti-sudhdrnava, 45, 47, 116 
Sumanobana, 45 
Suranga-kavi, 69 
Surya, 113 
Swatantra SiddhalingeSvara, 

Swetambaras, 21 
Syadvada, 9, 17, 22, 26 

T^ADBHAVA, 15, 44 
^ Tailapa, 31, 32 
Talikota, 69 

Taikad, 9, 13, 17, 24, 29, 116 
Tamil, 14, 15, 91, 101, 112 
Tanjore, 18 
Tapatl-parinaya, 100 
Tatsama, 15, 44 
Telugu, 14, 15, 64, 72, 79, 93, 112 
Tengalae, 91 

Tennala Ramakrishna, 97 
Terakanambi, 46 
"Three Gems," 30 
Tikas, 100 
Timma, 113 
Timmanna, 78 
Timmarasa, 92 
Timmarva, 92 
Tipu Sultan, 89, 90, 93 
Tirthankaras, 19, 20 
Tirumalarya (Tirumalayen- 

gar), 90,91, 113, 117 
Tirumala-rava, 69 
Tirumala Vaidya, 92 
Tirupati, 81, 91 

Tiruvalluvar, 101 
Tiruvayi-mol e , 91 
Tontada Siddhegvara, 71, 117 
Torave Rdmayana, 79, 117 
Totadarya, 113 ' 
Tribhuvana-tilaka , 69 
Triloka-saiaka, 47 
Tripadi, 16, 59 
Tripura-dahana, 44 

purdna, 32 

Tuka Ram, 72 
Tulasi Das, 36, 77 
Tuluva country, 19, 46, 47 
Tuiuva language, 93 
Tumbuluracharya, 27 

^ VARTI, 31,114 
Udaya, 28 
Udayaditya, 112 
Udaydditydla hkdram ,112 
Udbhata-kdvya , 64 
Udupi, 76, 77, 81, 100, 115 
Ujjayini, 43, 97 
Ulavi, 53 
Ummatur, 51, 69 
Uraiyur, 18 
Urilinga-peddi, 57 
Uttara-kdnda, 92 
Uttara Rdmayana, 92 

WACHANAS, 56-58, 70, 71 
^ Vaishnava Revival, 75 ff 

Vaishnava classics, 78, 79, 91, 92 

Vaishnava Dasas, 79 

Vajranandi, 27 

Valmiki, 34 

Vanara-dhvaja, 35 

Varaha Timmappa Dasa, 81 

Vardhamana Mahavira, 19, 20 

Vasavadatta, 43 
Vastu-kosa. 37, 111, 112 

Vemana (Telugu), 72 

Vengi, 30, 33, 54 

Venkatacharya, B., 101 

Venkata Dasa, 81 

Venkatapati Raya, 69 


Venkatavaradacharya, 100 
Venkayarya, 92 
Vidyadharas, 34 
Vidyaranya (Madhavacharya), 

Vijaya Dasa , 81 
Vijayanagar, 42, 46, 64, 68, 79, 

80,83, 97, 115, 117 
Vijnanesvara, 114, 116 
Vikranidrka-deva-charitra, 114 
Vimala, 2_8 
Vimala Suri, 36 
Vincent Smith, quoted, 19 
Viraktas, 70 

Virakta Tontadarya, 62, 71 
Vira Ballala,_43, 77 
Virabhadra-raja, 72 
VIra-rajendra, 89 
Vlrasaivdinrita-purdna, 69, 72 
ViraSaiva Religion, 49 ff 
Vira SomeSvara, 44 
Vira Vasanta Raya, 56, 68 
Viriapaksha, 85 
Virupa-raja, 69, 72 
Vishalaksha-pandita, 89 
Vishnu-pur ana, 17 , 91 
Vishnuvardhiana, 34 

Visishtadvaita, 90 
VisveSvaracharya, 54, 69 
Vitthala (Vithoba), 80 
Vitthala Dasa, 81 
Viveka-chintamani , 71, 117 
Vokkaligara Patrike, 101 
Vopadeva, 110 
Vrishabhendra-vijaya, 53, 84 
Vrittdnta Patrike, 101 
Vritta-vilasa, 37 
Vyasa-raya of Sosile, 80 

Weigle, Rev. G. H., 102 
Wilks' History of Mysore, 89 
Wodeyars of Mysore and 

Ummatiir, 51 
Wiirth, Rev., 7, 102 

YADAVAS, 45, 60 
* Yakshagana, 16, 100 
Yasodhara-charitre, 43, 116 
Yatis, 20, 34 
Ydtrika-sanchara, 101 
Yediyur, 71 
Yelandiir, 71, 84, 89 
Yenur, 19, 47, 93 


FresemLvmts ofSimarese 


A 000 106 098 7